• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Peter I

1. Known as "Peter the Great", reign began in 1700
2. Responsible for first large-scale westernization of Russia: "Grand Embassy" = journey west to find military specialists/ western thinkers
3. Founded St. Petersburg (built on marsh) and ordered men to shave, dress more modernly, etc.
4. Ironically, move to increase science, education, and universities resulted in increase in free thinking
5. Tight censorship, brutally tortured/killed military elite when he discovered disloyalty
1. Refers to how people were ranked in society (nobility, clergy, townspeople/merchants, peasantry)
2. This social structure in place by the time Peter ascends throne
3. Merchant and townspeople had ability to make profit, but could also lose from taxes
4. Some profited from Peter's interest in meritocracy--Russia= service state to tsar, so nobility surrounding tsar (boyars) most privileged
5. Peter kept church in positive light to appease peasants, but put church in backseat to state's interests
Decembrist Rebellion
1. 1825: After succeeding in Napoleonic wars, Russia's military elite questioned oppression by tsar/government
2. Revolutionaries call for constitutional monarchy to protect basic freedoms of speech, press, and religion
3. question of how far to extend freedom--to serfs?
4. realize requests out of the question, protests more of statement against status quo
5. 3000 army mutiny convenes in St. Petersburg square, but revolt dispersed by force... Nicholas does not pardon officers, but kills them
Nicholas I
1. 1820's-1855
2. Military man, loved order/stability, believed in concept of duty, defends autocracy
3. Supported higher institutions, which ironically led to freethinking (which he feared)
4. Fearful of change, creates strict laws of censorship to stop influx of western ideas, relies on inner circle and leaves serfdom for next tsar
5. Extends bureaucracy, promotes central government: Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Nationality
Official Nationality
1. During Nicholas I's reign
2. Ideological formula derived from western/liberal ideas
3. minister of education Sergei Uvarov in 1832 promotes ideas of autocracy (no need for constitution), orthodoxy (prevent loss of religiosity) and nationality (instill Russianness)
4. Sought to promote Russian superiority and oppose enlightenment
5. Assert distinctive character of Russia, place higher value on Russian ideas, institutions, etc.
1. "the people"
2. term to describe common citizenry, orthodox peasants
3. deep divide between peasants and official Russia
4. Much of revolution based on theory of narod vs. authority, kulaks, etc.
5. opposite of "obshchestvo" (bourgeoise, educated society)
1. Emerges in 1860s (during Glasnost period)
2. Refers to entire critically thinking population, including official Russia and the intelligentsia
3. During Alexander II's Reign, modernized country with respect to industrializing and decentralizing government to give allow for more local control
4. Reforms judicial system, allows lawyers for 1st time, reduces censorship and increases education for women
5. creates forum for open discussion, leads to intense questioning from intelligent population, opposes narod! later branded anti-soviets and was persecuted following the communist revolution.
1. social group made up of young radicals with distinct identity and culture
2. 1860's group sees itself as group to represent ideas of society
3. believed history was escapable, and constructed society of scientific and rational lines
4. students became more radical, issued bloody proclamations
5. government becomes more repressive--many people okay with this, because they believed the radical students had caused fires in St. Petersburg
Third Section
1. Secret police of the state used frequently during Alexander's reign
2. investigations by this police force revealed to the nobility that the peasants were too uncultured/uncivilized to appreciate freedom
3. believed that emancipation in current conditions would lead to disobedience, plunder, and violence/murder
4. very different under Alexander than Nicolas I: censorship reduced
5. Nicolas I more liberal, considered emancipation
Petr Chaadaev
1. wrote letters praising western euroope and criticizing russian backwardness/orthodoxy ("Critical Comments on Russian History and Culture, 1829")
2. late 1800s
3. believed Russia contributed nothing to mankind/ human civilization, no "enlightenment" in Russia's history, all activity mere imitation of other cultures
4. thought Russians stuck in ritual/ignorance/corruption of church instead of being good christians and helping others
5. opposed to pan-slavism
1. emerging intelligentsia members in wake of Decembrist revolt calling for Russia to join the west in political development
2. protest backwardness of Russian culture/authority
3. Called for Rule of Law and constitutionalism and a similar movement to englightenment
4. Groups (kruzoks) come together to discuss literature, philosophy, and nationalism
5. members opposed to serfdom, expanding bureaucratic influence, and Nicholas' militarism
1. Russian nativists, believed culture was superior to the west (ex. Asakov)
2. convinced of virtue of Russian people and orthodoxy as a way to moralize society
3. wanted idea of 17th century tsar, one with familial attachment to people and a dual relationship
4. believed peasants wanted to live spiritually and not be bothered with bureaucratic affairs
5. believed in eliminated serfdom
1. peasant commune
2. developed organically and hten legally reorganized as holding land in 1861
3. source of collective rule/community among peasants, gave sense of togetherness
4. organized as separate system of self-government and beliefs, attempted to resist any authority from the top, Bolsheviks in favor of comune (believe it will aid in development of collectivization)
5. peasants responded more to local control as tsar seemed more distant in late 1800s
1. 1649 law code fixing peasants to land
2. peasants account for 80-85% of population, and Russian economy could not function without certain degree of free peasant/serf activity
3. abolished in 1861 by Emancipation
4. peasant agriculture backward, inefficient, unscientific--believed god owned land, and so resisted landlord's belief of private property
5. lowest social hierarchy, forced to pay taxes/ submit to will of state and landlord, rarely allowed to protest, mistreated in courts,
Soul Tax
1. Tax levied on individuals (serfs)
2. During Peter I's reign to fund military endeavors
3. Another burden on peasant farmers to pay state even more
4. most peasants couldn't afford to pay tax, but there were generally consequences for not paying, so they did anyway
5. increased dissatisfaction of peasants, demonstrates social class struggles
Pugachev Rebellion
1. In aftermath of Peter II's reign
2. Many angry over oppressive measures promoted by Catherine
3. Pugachev (peasant) pretended to be Peter III and tried to overthrow Catherine in a war
4. 30,000 peasants participated, thought that doing so would increase freedoms/land for people
5. rebellion result of continuation of serfdom--many believed catherine would end serfdom, but instead she brutally shut own rebellion and developed further restrictions on free speech
Imperial Russian Geographic Society
1. 1845, major ethnographic research program that set out to map physical and cultural boundaries of Russia
2. increased effort by orthodox church to raise educational, religious, and moral values
3. part of ideology created by Nicholas and his advisors to encourage education and nationalism
4. attempt to learn about entire landmass and available resources
5. missionaries sent out to convert subjugated peoples
Petrashevsky's Circle
1. Petrashevsky = son of doctor, became very smart, wealthy, and depressed
2. 1840s formed circle (or kruzok) that engaged in supposedly seditious discussion, but mostly just free thinking
3. circle discussed liberal and social ideas, became primary vehicle for intelligentsia movement in latter part of century
4. groups "underground," developed under strict censorship implemented by Nicholas
5. once caught the men were brutally punished, but this created sympathy among the educated population
1. Circle or educated men (and sometimes women) that met to discuss all kinds of ideas and think freely
2. Often underground, to avoid censorship
3. led by educated, wealthier members of population
4. got people talking about revolution
5. fueled fire for changes in Russia
Alexander Herzen
1. "Herzen Defends the HIdden Russia," and "Herzen's Commentaries on the Russian Scene": argues Russians actually good, honest people and do not observe such a bad reputation, but removes himself from country because he can't stand not having free speech
2. 1840-50s, publishes number of pieces advocating for revolution and movement towards western ideology
3. responsible for "iron image" of tsar, believed in abolishing serfdom
4. in contrast to slavophiles who believed peasants didn't want to be involved in state matters, believed peasantry indifferent simply because the chance had never been given them to get involved
5. very idealistic in portrayal of Russians, believed all deserved natural rights to freedom of speech, religion, and press
Crimean War
1. Russians want to keep military influence in the black sea
2. France and Great Britain ally with Ottomans
3. Ottomans win, Nicholas loses ability to protect Christians in Ottoman empire, loses legitimacy, bankrupt--Alexander takes over and egins "Great Reforms" to pacify population (i.e. lightening up on censorship)
4. First war covered in international press
5. conscripted Russian peasants ignorant and unhealthy
Great Reforms
1. Result of Nicholas' failure in Crimean War, Alexander comes to power and introduces reforms
2. designed to allow more free-thinking atmosphere, lightened up on censorship, allowed open discussion to solve societal problems and social issues
3. Only Alexander had power to make laws, but still step forwards towards freedom of speech
4. End of serfdom, though it would take several more years for peasants to aquire any land
5. universal military training, education, literacy, zemstfas created to provide more local control in countryside, judicial system reformed
Asakov and the Slavophiles
1. wrote "On the Internal State of Russia"
2. offereed advice to new tsar Nicholas II telling him to undo every political establishment in Russia and go back to "pre-Petrine Muscovy"
3. denied that Russia needed comprehensive framework of political institutions
4. Advocated sort of anarchy
5. slavophiles = apolitical
Emancipation of the Serfs
1. 1861: Alexander II frees serfs
2. Serious moral pressure from the intelligentsia
3. as a result of failure of Crimean war, clear peasants uneducated and unhealthy
4. would take several years before former serfs had access to land, and then prices so inflated that had to work anyway to pay for it
5. peasants unsatisfied, but still viewed Emancipation as a step in the right direction
1. societal participation in planning and implementing reform
2. in contrast to Nicholas' high degree of censorship, one of Alexander's great reforms that allowed for public debate on social issues
3. Alexander II still made all decisions, but atmosphere not oppressive (willing to allow for discussion among intellectuals)
4. scholarly journals exploded in number
5. women's question raised: people started to consider women's rights and role in society (reforms, education)
1. freedom, peasant understanding that god owned all land
2. In 1861, peasants still believe that land belongs to no one, and that tsar is still protector of people
3. this causes problems during Emancipation, when the idea of buying/owning land is foreign and received with difficulty
4. Peasants operated on social codes of mutual respect, familial-like system--broken down by distinct lines in land
5. to be fair, land distributed very equally, but this was incredibly impractical and inefficient
Bezdna Uprising
1. Bezdna = village in Kazan province
2. one of worst uprisings during effort to emancipate serfs
3. military units called to pacify unruly peasants, troops panicked and started to shoot, killing and wounding hundreds of unarmed peasants
4. one of 2,000 uprisings that occurred in 1861 after announcement of Emancipation
5. uprising significant in that it highlighted concerns from peasants, feeling of abandonment of tsar
1. local government formed to be a forum to debate ideas and have responsibility for local society
2. pre-reform regime that had been so heavily represented in the major cities, lack of representation from rural areas
3. given power of self taxation by reforms of Alexander, this enabled the assemblies to bear the primary responsibility for social/cultural development of infrastructure (roads, bridges, prisons)
4. responsible for providing public services (healthcare, relief to poor)
5. part of great reforms, showed conscious effort to address the country's problems
Universal Military Training Act of 1874
1. Universal conscription introduced in Russia, made possible by emancipation of serfs
2. law decreed that all males 20 and older eligible to serve in army for 6 years
3. all-class conscription, retracted nobles' right not to serve, focused on education instead of class
4. unintentionally made peasants interested in education, because two years of elementary education could reduce term of service from 6 to 2 years
5. reform reaction to embarrassment of Crimean War (in which troops were ignorant and performed terribly)
1. Arising out of the intelligentsia movement, many youths began a kind of cult movement (nihilism) meant to propel radical politics
2. known for their blue glasses
3. only some were truly radical, most just acted like it (sort of like a fad, cult of revolution) and felt a sense of elitism
4. fires sprung up around st. petersburg around the time of release of their pamphlet advocating violence, nihilists blamed for fires
5. cracked down on, arrested, and people didn't mind because they thought they had caused fires and were afraid of them
Polish Rebellion of 1863
1. Party in response to the fact that emancipation did not reach Poland
2. Response was harsh, with many insurgents executed/exiled to Siberia
3. Emancipation of Polish serfs achieved in 1864
4. Russian government attempted to Russify the peasantry and pit them against the Catholic church
5. caused growth to feeling of "polishness," despite the fact that Poland was dissolved and became mere province of Russia
"What is to be Done?"
1. Published 1862, Chernyshevskii = newspaper editor and become one of most popular writer in the 1860s
2. book became the "bible" of the revolutionary movement
3. tells story of an alienated young woman, Vera, who evolves into a financially independent woman
4. book emphasizes idea of a commune as an "anti-toxin" to Western corruption and the idea that the character evolves into a free-thinking human being
5. appealed to young people who were disillusioned by the way that emancipation had played out, instant success (people desperate for this message)
1. "The Contemporary"
2. St. Petersburg literary magazine originally started by Pushkin
3. criticized democratic ideas
4. popular among the Russian intelligentsia
5. especially active between 1852 and 1866, when shut down during panic following assassination attempt on Alexander II
Mikhailov and the "Women's Question"
1. women traditionally taught to be humble, silent, obedient, and orthodox
2. Mikhailov posed the question of women's role in society
3. during Glasnost period (1860s)
4. defended importance of women in society--first Russian feminist
5. fake marriages abroad to escape Russia's oppression, women emancipated in 1917
Populism (and the "narodniki")
1. arose following emancipation of serfs in 1861
2. revolution must be based on the people and the commune, not individuals
3. hope was to use "the people" to skip the traditional burgeoise phase of the revolution
4. deeply rooted in belief that power does/should lie in people, the narod
5. hoped to find support in masses
"Going to the People"
1. 1873-4
2. movement of students (both upper and middle class) trying to excite peasants into revolt
3. saw village commune as "embryo of socialism"
4. failed because peasants really didn't want to get involved, general distrust of outsiders, greater interest in improvement of lives than abstract ideas, and many still saw tsar as protector
5. secret police responded by beating/imprisoning those involved (both students and peasant sympathizers)
Dmitrii Karakozov
1. revolutionary member of the Ishutin Society (a nihilist commune)
2. cousin of Ishutin himself
3. wrote and circulated pamphlet calling for people to revolt
4. attempted assassination of Tsar Alexander II (unsuccessful)
5. hanged
Trial of the 193
1. 1877
2. members of "going to the people" movement
3. trial backfired for government because it provided revolutionaries with a forum by which to express their ideas
4. 75 of 193 died, committed suicide, or went insane while in prison awaiting trial
5. this gained sympathy from the public
Vera Zasulich
1. educated daughter of nobleman who became involved in revolutionary movements in St. Petersburg (Chaikovskii Circle)
2. 1878- shot (in murder attempt) the governor general of St. Petersburg
3. put on trial for attempted murder, but acquitted despite more than condemning evidence
4. example of how Russian jury was apt to favor political or emotional leanings over convincing evidence
5. Also demonstrates power of political sympathies in St. Petersburg at this time
Sergi Nechaev
1. Nihilst and anarchist under Alexander II
2. went into self-exile in Switzerland and England in order to have freedom of speech
3. had a machiavellian point of view in regard to how to achieve revolution, a fanatic
4. disappointed in many of his contemporary revolutionists' commitment levels--thought that the revolution should completely consume the life of any true revolutionary
5. intellectual colleague of Herzen, shared many of his ideas (especially on motivation of upper classer to better peasants' lots, commitment of revolutionists)
Land and Freedom
1. sibling/child of "going to the people" movement
2. largely composed of middle and upper class intellectuals
3. saw peasants as key force to revolution (with the working class as second force)
4. attempted to agitate and incite peasants into strikes, demonstrations, and ultimately rebellion
5. dissolved into two groups, one of which was the "People's Will"
People's Will (narodnaya volya)
1. populist organization against autocracy (called for the "disorganization of the state")
2. did not have any agreed-upon idea for what the new Russian state would look like, but knew they didn't like autocracy
3. origin: child party of the failed Land of Freedom Party
4. in many instances, this organization resorte to terrorism in order to achieve it's goal (against autocracy)
5. orchestrated the assassination of Alexander II (through a series of bombs thrown)
Alexander III (1881-1894)
1. great reassertion of the power of the tsar and of autocracy
2. nicknamed the "peacekeeper" (not especially peace-seeking, but ruled during a peaceful time in Europe)
3. emphasis on order, increased censorship
4. established the okhrana, a new type of Third Section (secret police)
5. increased the prevalence of martial law in courts, which often meant shorter trials, and required less evidence to convict--this led to an increased sense of fear and distrust among the people, keeping revolutionaries temporarily underground, and therefore all the more dangerous, unpredictable, and desperate
Konstantin Pobedonostsev
1. Chief Procurator of the Holy Synod (ruling body of the Orthodox Church) that elects Church's patriarch (equivalent of Pope), 1880-1905
2. tutor and highly valued advisor to Alexander III--very influential
3. author of "the Falsehood of Democracy", which strongly promoted Russia's return to full autocracy (a policy that Alexander III would strongly embrace)
5. did not believe that elected representatives would do good by the people, didn't trust politicians. tsars, by contrast, do not have to pander like politicians, and can do the right thing for hte country without having to worry about re-election
1. Alexander III's version of the "Third Section", or secret police
2. used to spy on citizens
3. looked for signs of treason or revolutionary thoughts
4. clear example of Alexander's move towards tightening autocracy and suppressing freedom of thought
5. its existence created an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust among the people (as evidenced by an encounter w/ the first of the Kanatchikov readings)
1. Late 19th century
2. movement to unite all Slavic peoples (those who shared language and lineal ties)
3. liberal and racial nationalism
4. stemmed from other European national awakenings (especially in Germany with Bismark)
5. especially problematic area: the Ottoman Emire --motivating factor for the Russo-Turkish war
Russification Policy
1. Russia began to make its non-Russian provinces conform to Russian customs
2. taught Russian language in schools (Poland especially resistant, but eventually gave in)
3. in general, if one lived in a province controlled by Russia, one had to be Russian, know the Russian language, or be extremely well connected in order to get anywhere of consequence in his/her professional life, or in any social/political circle
4. loss of some cultural and national identity in these states (such as Poland, Lithuania, and Belarus), anti-Semitism = actual policy (jews scapegoated for assassination of tsar, pogroms, promotion of christian orthodoxy)
5. policy reinforced the power of Russia, and by extension, the power of the tsar
Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)
1. Russia wanted to regain territory it had lost in the Crimean war
2. seen as the war that might make Pan-Slavism a reality
3. first Russian war that used patriotism effectively to motivate troops
4. 1878: Russia (and ally Servia in aid of Bosnia, Herzegovina and Bulgaria) defeated hte Turks, the war concludes with the Treaty of San Stefano--by this treaty, many formerly Turkish-rule states (Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro) were freed, some provinces came under Russian protection (esp. Bulgaria)
5. 1878: Treaty of Berlin- worried that Russia would become too powerful, Britain, among other countries, stepped in to compel Russia to agree to this treaty which greatly restricted Russian gains
1. married woman
2. had little to no authority
3. society patriarchal
4. however, babas had some clout in the household because they were "greedy" and sought to protect/ feed their families
5. women tried to find power, wealth, etc. in any way they could
1. wealthier peasant
2. towards the end of the 1870s, clear division becoming apparent between wealthy and poor peasants--although populists originally promoted and idealized the peasantry, it was clear that the commune was breaking up and giving way to 2 groups of peasants
3. hardworking, prosperous, and very pragmatic
4. many poorer peasants envious, individualistic
5. kulak portrayed as fat, greedy, etc. in revolutionary propaganda
1. "self-judge"
2. throughout most of the peasants' history, there wasn't an established legal system in place--much of justice done by peasants or heads of commune
3. no established laws about stealing, cheating, etc.
4. if crime committed and someone found guilty, person paid with money or time
5. 1864: Alexander indroduces legitimate legal system that is heavily drawn on European models: equality before law, and separation of the judiciary from administration. peasants resist to this change.
1. Russia = patriarchal society
2. families organized into extended groups led by one male
3. rules enforced by these men followed at all times
4. job of children to follow rules without question
5. male-dominated households, and women subjugated (but still look for power wherever they can)
1. relates to working class
2. communal relationship depended on how peasants divvied up workload
3. also applied to living together in cities
4. mutual worker respect incredibly important to healthy functioning of Russian workforce
5. banned together to resist oppression/unwanted changes, etc.
1. idea that the people ("narod") believed in both orthodoxy (living according to ritual and belief) and an intense relationship with nature
2. peasants incredibly superstitious (household fairies/monsters)
3. this very troubling to state
4. in 1880/90s intense movement to reintroduce orthodoxy and discipline
5. fatalism associated with backwardness of Russia's culture
1. People who leave village to work in factories
2. 1880s: cities growing by 50,000 people every year
3. public health terrible, cholera and typhus rampant as result of poor/no sewage systems
4. famine common, peasants often had no choice but to leave for cities and try to find work to survive
5. until 1905, very little regulation of factory life: unions illegal, petitions illegal, no way to voice discontent
1. peasant man, less formal for adult peasant man
2. independent man/farmer
3. view land as collective property and considers the labor he does, not the piece of ground, to be his
4. less egotistical than babas, doesn't gossip or spread rumors
5. relies on mind, strength, and ability to work to get ahead
Land Captain (zemskii nachalnik)
1. new job in countryside created by tsar in 1889
2. official job is to oversee the peasant government
3. appointed position
4. attempt to reestablish noble control, seen as step backwards in regards to self government
5. often despised by the peasants
1. chemist at St. Petersburg Agricultural Institute
2. accused of conspiratorial activities and exiled in 1871
3. went to countryside and lived among peasants, where he served as there spokesman though his "Letters from the Countryside"
4. one of the first to give an accurate portrayal of common peasants in Russia, wrote about their activities/society/etc.
5. wrote his letters while under police supervision on his estate in Smolensk
Sergie Witte
1. Minister of Finance under Nicholas II
2. responsible for Russia's dramatic industrial growth: by the early 1890s Russia's economy was developing 4x as fast as Great Britain's.
3. By 1885: peasant land banks set up (offering to give credit to peasants to make it possible to buy land), labor legislation enacted (limiting child labor and allowing a factory inspector), poll tax abolished
4. takes on massive project to create infrastructure and communication, builds telegram lines, and enormous project of building trans-siberian railroad
5. continues to force peasants to sell grain at low prices and creates protective tariff to bolster domestic economy
Khodynka Field Tragedy
1. 1846: people trampled to death, fall into open wells at coronation ceremonies for Nicholas II
2. people read into this, claim that officials deliberately left wells open so that people would fall in
3. newfound sense of tenseness between people and official Russia
4. people start connecting event with other oppressive/corrupt measures, have general distrust towards government
5. leads to beginnings of conscious thinking among workers and possibility of revolution
Nicholas II
1. Simple, religious, and quiet family man
2. Tradition greatest strength, but this not very helpful in current political situation
3. determined to keep bureaucracy in place, protect autocracy against revolution, maintain law/order, "Russianness"-- only saw positive aspects of tradition
4. not concerned for people's welfare, had limited political vision, and so strikes intensified: when he continued to shut them down by force, strikes got more violent
5. brutally put down revolution of 1905, and despite attempts to create legislative institutions such as the Duma and zemstvo local councils, by the time WWI came around he had failed the country so badly that he abdicated Feb. 1917
1. By Marxist definition, any people that didn't work for wages, exploit labor of workers
2. essentially represented capitalist oppression
3. characterized as corrupt and wealthy, but by revolution evolved from members of the nobility to anyone who had achieved some type of high status (kulaks, well-off merchants, bureaucratic officials, etc.)
4. played vital role in propaganda, portrayed as enemy of people
5. shifted definition made dekulakization of Russia justifiable
1. general term for working class members of society
2. once populism becomes less popular, revolutionary elite look to working class to change society (since they control the economy and modernization of Russia)
3. workers begin to go on strike and demand more freedoms, such as press, speech, and religion, but also demand shorter working hours, better pay, and better treatment of workers
5. workers revolt in rev. of 1905, but not what workers are looking for: in 1917, Bolsheviks take over and push for socialism, or the dictatorship of the proletariat. Though Bolsheviks at first promise egalitarian society, really the elite members of the party are the ones in power...
Semen Kanatchikov
1. Radical worker who wrote an autobiography of his life
2. transformed into a revolutionary from his peasant family
3. one of the few to record his transformation form poor peasant to urban worker to revolutionary. His autobiography allows readers to understand the thought process of a young man during the time.
4. shows repression of revolutionary thought by authorities
5. loses multiple jobs at factories
"Revolutionary Consciousness"
1. commitment to a transformation of society to socialism
2. had to "awaken" the consciousness of the lower class to achieve revolution
3. professional revolutionaries had to bring "consciousness" to the working class, according to Lenin. the working class could not wake up on their own.
4. conscious workers required the leadership of professional revolutionaries, otherwise the movement would be ineffective and fail
5. "What is to be Done?" by Lenin talks about Revolutionary consciousness
Zubatovschina (Police Socialism)
1. Pro-government trade unions put in place by Zubatov, the head of the Okhrana from 1896-1902
2. allowed the unions just enough freedom to give the feeling of independence, yet kept them still firmly under police control
3. tried to use the unions to foster a sense of loyalty to the tsar among the workers.
4. tried to create disunity among socialists while pretending ot be on their side: "keep your friends close and your enemies closer" and "divide and rule" strategies. this didn't work because workers were still afraid of the police
5. Zubatov committed suicide after he learned of the tsar's abdication
Russian Social Democratic Workers Party
1. revolutionary socialist Russian political party formed in 1898 to unite various revolutionary organizations into one party
2. based on theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
3. wanted end of private property and to give power to the proletariat
4. believed true revolutionary potential lay in the workers
5. later split into Bolshevik and Menshevik parties because the Bolsheviks wanted limited party membership and worker class revolution while the Mensheviks wanted more open membership and middle class revolution
Populists/Social Revolutionaries
1. Socialists, but not Marxist
2. wanted to expand concept of "the people" to all those who opposed the tsar
3. terrorism important tactic for SRs, assassinated political enemies
4. SRs believed that the peasantry, not the industrial proletariat, would be the revolutionary class in Russia
5. wanted to divide land among the peasants instead of collectivizing land
Lenin's "What is to be Done?"
1. Lenin left Russia 1900 for Geneva to join Plekhanov's circle of older Russian Marxists in publishing paper for new Social-Democratic Party, "The Spark" (iskra)
2. proved to be fundamental ideas underlying communist movement
3. theory of the tightly organized and disciplined party of "professional revolutionaries"
4. "WitbD?" = lengthy polemic against "economists," those Marxists who focused on economics instead of a separate revolutionary movement
5. publication in 1902 marks true beginning of Leninism as distinctive political current
Serafim of Sarov Liberation Movement (Union of Liberation, Union of Unions)
1. Summer 1905: dissatisfied Russian peasants took advantage of government troops' absence (they were still coming home from Japanese war) to protest
2. September: peasant uprising in rural areas against gentry
3. Union of Liberation represented movement of liberal professionals, transformed into the Kadet, or Constitutional Democratic Party
4. encouraged later liberals to break away from state and form their own parties
5. Union of Unions, headed by Miliukov, brought together all different kinds of people (most importantly RR workers). The strikes, unions, and protests of the summer forced Nicholas to present the October Manifesto on Oct. 17th
Russo-Japanese War, 1904-5
1. Russia seen as stronger military power, but Japanese ended up outnumbering Russians 3:1, causing a Russian retreat
2. guns and technology used by Japanese much better than Russian tech., this disparity highlighted Russia's need to modernize
3. Chief Gendarme of the Autocracy Vyacheolav Plehve assassinated by SRs and replaced with fairly liberal minister, Sviatopolk Morsky
4. Dec. 12, 1904: tsar issues decree for reform, but it's too little, too late: people don't trust tsar, and have little faith in decree
5. war ended up huge disaster, humiliating, social unrest heightened, withdrawal of troops painfully slow, peace at Portsmouth in August
Father Gapon
1. orthodox priest who helped organize and mobilize thousands of peasants in 1904-5 through his Assembly of Russian Factory Workers, tearooms, and public lectures
2. represented interests of regular, working Russians
3. Jan 1905: citywide strike showed evidence of Assembly's influence as Gapon's organizations created unity and strength among workers
4. helped peasants write petition to "our father" tsar Nicholas demanding political/economic changes like 8hr workday and free, direct elections with universal suffrage for all males.
5. Jan 9, 1905 (Bloody Sunday): marched with men, women, and children to present tsar with petition at winter palace--tsar didn't show, guards shot at demonstrators who were unarmed and carried with them religious icons
Bloody Sunday
1. orchestrated by Father Gapon
2. peaceful procession of Gapon and his followers to present petition to tsar
3. demands for higher wages, 8 hr workdays, and free elections
4. tsar wasn't there to receive people, people shot at by military (100 killed)
5. tarnished the already abysmal reputation of tsar in eyes of people, spurring revolution: major turning point for the revolution because up until this point, a revolution had not seemed imperative to solving Russia's problems
Potemkin mutiny
1. June 14-25, 1905
2. took place on Battle Ship Potemkin
3. mutiny as ship approached port of Odessa
4. many people supported hte ship in a peaceful manner when it reached harbor, however, it broke into a riot in the town later in the day and loyalists then began firing on the people
5. sparked uprisings in other fleets in the navy, another major factor in initiating October revolution
October Manifesto (1905)
1. Oct 17th: Nicholas issues manifesto
2. vague promises of creating an elected legislative body and civil/religious rights
3. met some of the demands of people, enough to slightly diminish revolution, but not fully bring it to a stop
4. for the first time in Russia's history people are allowed to organize unions and political parties
5. resulted in creation of State Duma
1. Russian parliament
2. instituted in 1906 as the "lower house" in the government with the State Council, which consisted of representative appointed by the tsar, become upper house
3. article 87: Duma could be dissolved at any time by the tsar, this indicated the superficiality of the Duma and the principles of the October Manifesto in general
4. many hoped the duma would address the peasant issue
5. dissolved frequently in 1906-7
1. name for members of the Union of 17 October
2. pledged to peacefully coexist with the government as long as the government maintained the promises of the manifesto
3. didn't want to disregard Russia's past in creating a unified Russian state
4. wanted constitutional monarchy with popular representation based on universal suffrage
5. dominated the Third Duma, more upper class
February Revolution
1. Abdication of Tsar Nicholas II
2. Officially ends tsardom
3. formation of Provisional Government and Petrograd Soviet
4. Reaction to major loss of Russian life in WWI
5. also a huge famine going on at the time
soviets/factory committees/soldiers' committees
1. soviets = organizations of workers and soldiers and people that helped groups of people democratically express their thoughts and better their situations
2. workers used soviets to pass worker reforms
3. soldiers committees allowed them to express their views up front
4. Lenin: "All power to the Soviets!"
5. important mode of revolutionary discussion
Provisional Government
1. Mostly kadets
2. controlled the army and trade
3. take over all of the tsar's bureaucracy
4. free all political and religious prisoners
5. freedom of speech and press, abolish religious and class divisions
Petrograd Soviet
1. Forerunner for soviets all over the empire
2. workers, soldiers, and peasants all participate
3. direct democracy
4. hold power because the people in the Soviet are those people who run the country through labor and production (the workers and farmers)
5. struggled against the Provisional government
"Dual Power"
1. form of government in which the Soviet and Provisional Government ruled together
2. unstable form of government, as the two fought against eachother
3. July Days occur as a strike out against the PG
4. Lenin utilized the instability of the government to seize power
5. All comes to an end during the October Revolution
Order No. 1
1. March 14, 1917
2. put forward by the newly established Petrograd Soviet
3. This order was intended to democratize the army in response to mutinies and attempted coups
4. Committees from the lower ranks shall be chosen to establish a greater voice and representation for all
5. shows that the greatest issue is not peace or the end of war, but for representation, fairness, and a say in how the military is run
April Theses
1. series of directives written by Lenin for his fellow Bolsheviks in April 1917
2. Put forward many catchy slogans, including: "Peace, Land, Bread" and "All Power to the Soviets"
3. the latter = most controversial, demanded elimination of dual power and transfer of power to soviets, wanted all-out class warfare: workers take power through soviets and should disobey the PG
4. Lenin's vision drew on mass radicalism and his own ideological utopianism, and he projected a strong vision of transformation through reshaping consciousness and making the proletariat a universal class
5. Lenin's April Theses influenced the July Days and the October Revolution in the coming months
June Offensive
1. Major Russian offensive during June/July 1917 against the German/Austria-Hungarian forces
2. ordered by Alexander Kerensky, the Minister of War
3. Initial success, but utterly failed when Russian lines/forces were broken due to mass desertions and mutiny
4. PG severely weakened due to this military failure and destroyed Russian military morale--commanders lost control of their soldiers
5. catastrophe lead to the mass demonstrations of July Days
July Days
1. refers to events in Petrograd in July
2. soldiers and workers rioted against PG for the end of the war
3. Bolsheviks lead the riots, but people everywhere joined up in angry crowds
4. chaos and anarchy: rioters shooting gov. troops, troops gunning down rioters, angry rioters attacking soviet leaders--"why haven't you bastards taken power?"
5. troops able to suppress disorders, but crisis reinforced lack of confidence in the government and the anger over hte war--gov. reinstated capital punishment, major backpedaling to before revolution
Constituent Assembly
1. Democratically elected constitutional body that convened at the Tauride Palace in Petrograd in January after the November elections
2. met for first and last time on Jan 5, 1918 when Bolsheviks dissolved it
3. Lenin justified that the assembly represented the old guard and was out of date--couldn't decide future of a revolutionary Russia
4. officially drew the lines for the Bolsheviks--either with us or against us.
5. essentially the end of chance for democracy in Russia
Decree on Land (1917)
1. written by Lenin, formally nationalized land
2. empowered peasants to complete the agrarian revolution on their own terms
3. passed on Oct. 26, 1917 by Second Congress of Soviets', Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies
4. Private property was to be abolished and landed estates were to be redistributed among peasants
5. damage to the confiscated property which now belonged to the people = serious crime, punished by revolutionary courts
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
1. peace treaty signed between Russian SFSR and Central Powers
2. marked Russia's exit from WWI
3. 1/3 of Russia's population lost as result of treaty
4. also lost 1/2 industry and 9/10 coal mines
5. thoroughly humiliating for Bolsheviks--lost more than they gained
Red Army
1. armed force of Bolsheviks during 1918 Russian civil war, and later the army of hte Soviet Union in 1922
2. Trotsky is attributed with building and reforming the Red army
3. largest and most important institution in the Bolshevik state
4. deliberately conscripted the most "class conscious" elements of the working class and party
5. most prominent roles were in Russian civil war and WWI, but also used to quell revolts in countryside
Political Commissars
1. officer appointed by government to oversee a unit of the military
2. used by government to ensure that previously appointed officers and troops are loyal to new regime
3. after Oct. Rev., this institution was adopted by Red Army and lasted until 1942
4. originally introduced in 1917 under PG
5. position equal to that of the commander of a given military unit and has the authority to countermand the orders of the commander
Cheka (later, GPU, or OGPU, NKVD, KGB)
1. charged with becoming the "sword of the revolution" against class enemies real and imagined
2. Bolshevik secret police created by decree signed by Lenin on Dec. 20, 1917
3. became a state within a state, arbitrarily deciding revolutionary justice and terror
4. transformed into GPU in 1922, members included Bolsheviks as well as Leftist SRs who were later expelled for attempting to assassinate Lenin
5. troops policed labor camps, ran the Gulag system, and conducted requisitions of food
Dmitrii Karakozov
1. tried to kill Alexander II
2. caught and hanged in St. Petersburg
3. studied at Kazan University
4. assassination attempt symbolic of peasant unrest and dissatisfaction with reforms
5. circulated a hand-written proclamation urging people to revolt
Trial of the 193
1. winter 1778
2. tsar put many of the populists that partook in the "to the people" movement on trial
3. trial held in public, and reported in press in accordance with judicial system reforms
4. as many as 150 of people were freed without punishment
5. showed that the support of people in St. Petersburg definitely with the revolutionaries
Kronstadt Rebellion
1. sailors involved fought and won Civil War to bring Bolsheviks to power
2. 50,000 sailors on naval base participated, took 60,000 Red Army soldiers to suppress uprising
3. no longer supported the current Soviets and wanted new Soviet officials elected that expressed teh wishes of the workers and peasants
4. pushed for freedom of speech to workers and peasants
5. lead to the ending of War Communism and Lenin implementing his New Economic Policy (NEP)
10th Party Congress (1921)
1. held during March 8-16, 1921 in Moscow
2. first council since the conclusion of the intense fighting between Red and White Armies
3. internal party factions banned
4. Lenin instituted NEP during this assembly
5. war communism brought to an end, congress decided it was no longer necessary because the civil war was coming to an end
Peasant "Brest-Litovsk"
1. policy instituted during 10th Party Congress
2. allowed peasants to sell their surplus grain on the free market
3. part of Lenin's New Economic Policy
4. Lenin forced into this because of peasants' uncooperative reaction towards war communism and the seizure of their grain
5. gov. needed to regain trust of the peasants and the peasant "Brest-Litovsk" was their attempt
1. "alliance"
2. term used to describe cooperative relationship between worker and peasant
3. during period of War Communism, nearly destroyed as the government forcibly confiscated peasants' grain
4. Lenin instituted hte NEP in order to restore smychka
5. loads of propaganda distributed during Civil War that depicted workers and peasants in a harmonious relationship with the peasants willingly selling their grain to benefit the workers
Famine of 1921-23
1. 5 million people died, 25% peasants
2. peasants blamed famine on war communism policy of Bolsheviks
3. caused by drought and disruption of agricultural production among peasants (from war communism)
4. no official request ever issued for relief from the Soviets, but word spread and organizations started to send in food
5. churches stripped of their valuables against the will of the Russian Orthodox Church to provide relief
1. "former people", referred to ex-bourgeoisie
2. former exploiters were considered outside of the soviet state, not regarded as people, had no rights
3. victims of terror and dekulakization
4. question of what to do with their children, who are initially also discriminated against, even if they were born under socialism
5. practice of discriminating against children of exploiters officially ended by Constitution of 1936
1. people who profited most from NEP of 1921
2. NEP allowed people to sell their grain for profit after a 10% tax in kind to the state
3. meant for peasants (peasant Brest-Litovsk), but people that profit most from restoration of free market are these petty capitalists
4. take a lot of risks on black market, but benefits substantial
5. after NEP dissolved and collectivization takes place in late 1920s, NEP men are targeted
1. type of socialism practiced by Lenin
2. ideologically, favored the end of exploitation, very utopian, wished to build global socialism
3. became more pragmatic in years following revolution, instituted Red Terror and War Communism
4. Stalin says "Leninism Lives," but what is "Leninism"? ...difference between policy and ideology confuses issue (Lenin dies Jan. 1924)
5. Stalin and Trotsky have differing views: Trotsky probably more Leninist, and Stalin wins out with building socialism at home and industrialization. Does all sort of horrible things in Lenin's name.
Family Code of 1918
1. Temporary measure that modified previously extremely restrictive laws around marriage and family
2. made divorce easy--tons of people get divorced
3. based on ideas of gender equality
4. replaces religious marriages with civil ones, which are the only kind recognized by the state
5. eliminated concept of illegitimacy--every child belongs to state: thought that eventually the family would wither away and die, and so these measures would ultimately be replaced by free loving unions of strong workers and state based childcare (which freaked people out, didn't come to pass)
Komsomol (Communist Youth League)
1. established Oct. 29, 1918 in order to band together youth organizations that had been involved in the revolution
2. took on new purpose 1922: engage members in health activities, sports, education
3. youth wing of communist party
4. important way to teach values of communist party to youth (ages 14-28)
5. members received privileges an preferences in promotions within party
League of Militant Godless
1. Mass volunteer anti-religious organization of Soviet workers and others, consisted of party members, workers, and members of Komsomol
2. developed from the ideological and cultural views/policies of communist parties
3. aimed at fighting off religious mindset and instilling a scientific mindset among all workers
4. emphasized atheism
5. "struggle against religion is a struggle for socialism," ultimately a failure for the party
"Socialism in One Country"
1. proposed by Stalin 1924, push for Russia to strengthen itself internally given the defeat of other communist revolutions throughout Europe
2. Bolshevik's hope for a global communist revolution fell apart... so Stalin began promoting the idea of "socialism in one country"
3. Stalin claimed that the idea was a further development of Leninism
4. contrasted from earlier Bolshevik theory that the success of the Russian Revolution depended on proletarian revolutions in Europe--instead Stalin said that a socialist society could be achieved inside a single country
5. focus shifted to building socialism, economically and politically, in the USSR without help from other countries: Soviet Union "leader" of the international proletariat
Nikolai Bukharin (1888-1938)
1. at first, Bukahrin wanted to continue NEP (with Stalin after Lenin's death)--before Lenin died, Bukharin usually disagreed with him but agreed with the NEP policy...under Lenin, he held many high positions in government
2. after Lenin's death, power struggle for Lenin's spot--initially, Stalin and Bukharin together against Trotsky
3. Stalin switches positions, goes against Bukharin: drop in grain production, even though teh harvest was good, causes Stalin to blame peasants of withholding grain, this isolates Bukharin and Stalin more
4. Competes with Stalin, who gains control of party and instigates 5 Year Plan, which Bukharin supports but disagrees about method of execution (believes Stalin's methods too harsh)
5. Stalin defeats Bukharin, condemning him as a leader of the "Right Deviation"... eventually accused of plotting to overthrow the state and was executed in 1938
"War Scare" crisis of 1927
1. Great Britain cuts off talks with Russia
2. Soviet Union was pushing for Revolution at home without discussion
3. Stalin uses this to stir up new emotions for new war against war
4. pushes for an isolated socialist Russia
5. another attempt to raise national pride, strength, and power for socialism
Famine of 1932-33
1. Occurred mainly in Ukraine
2. Stalin needed grain to sell in order to make his industrialization of Russia successful
3. Capital obtained from requisitioning immense quantities of grain and dumping it on western markets at low prices (grain most important resource available for export)
4. grain taken from Ukraine by collectivization
5. even during famine, Stalin kept exporting grain
Household Plots
1. small plot of land (typically less than 0.5 hectacres) attached to a rural residence
2. primarily cultivated for subsistence
3. surplus products from household plot sold to neighbors, relatives, friends, and farmer markets in nearby towns
4. only form of private or family farming allowed during the soviet era
5. additional (much needed) planting space for farmers who worked large collective, state farms
Pasha Angelina
1. Collective farm tractor driver
2. 1936, initiated movement for best woman tractor driver
3. made a symbol of the technically educated female
4. during Stalin's first Five Year Plan.
5. Made 126% of her quota
1. promoted workers who had become cadres after the revolution
2. bought off by power within party
3. idea of transformation into perfect Soviet citizen
first Five Year Plan (1928-1932)
1. Done in attempt to quickly industrialize Russia
2. List of economic goals designed to strengthen country's economy
3. to make nation miliarily and industrially self-sufficient
4. Stalin used fear of foreign invaders to motivate Russians
5. Added the Kolkhoz to help pay for industialization- destroyed Soviet agriculture, but seen as a success by Soviet officials
"Catch and Overtake"
1. Stalinist plan to "catch and overtake" western powers
2. slogan for First Five Year Plan to industrialize Russia
3. showed how idealistic communists were about communism outstripping capitalism
4. plans under this slogan put serious industrial development into production (e.g. factories, cities such as Magnitogorsk)
5. encompassed most of Stalin's plans under the FFYP, as they were all intended to further Russia (e.g. collectivization of the peasantry)
Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Complex
1. industrial and mining city--presented as showpiece of Soviet accomplishment (esp. that of Five yr plan)
2. great natural supply of iron nearby, which allowed Russia to compete with western nations in steel production
3. living conditions very poor
4. use of forced labor
5. many workers = examples of stakhanovites (over-achievers praised for incredible speed on the job)
Belomor Canal
1. construction: 1931-33, canal that connects Baltic Sea with White Sea
2. symbol of success of FYP
3. Soviets used forced labor to complete project
4. thousands of workers died during canal's construction
5. irony: used as a symbol of success, but built on bones of slave-citizens
1. movement to promote over-achieving at work
2. true follower, stakhanovite, works hard all the time (not just for show during exhibitions)
3. named after very hard working coal miner, Aleksei Stakhanov
4. system granted various privileges to hard workers
5. put in place to ensure the success of Stalin's Five Year Plan
Pavlik Morozov
1. Young boy who became a martyr legend for Soviet heroicism
2. turned father in to authorities for favoring kulaks
3. father punished by authorities, boy killed by his uncles
4. recent evidence questions boy's motivation--more likely that boy was angry at father for separating from mother and seeking revenge
5. Soviets wanted to promote this kind of thing; children true to Soviet government i.e. turning in their parents, neighbors turning in neighbors
Leonid Potemkin
1. grew up under Stalin, kept diary
2. came from modest country background and became geologist/intellectual
3. chronicled progress in becoming ideal Soviet citizen: leader and social activist
4. projected ideal itself idealized Soviet citizen, and by extension, the Soviet system
5. sees ideal proletariat as hardened and carefully honed class, sees himself as soft, weak, brittle (before transformation), example of vydvizhentso