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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Rise of Stalin in Communist Party

Lenins health declines,

Lenins testament.,

Got rid of Trotsky.,

Lenins health declines

has a stroke in 1922, partially paralyzed.,

When his health starts to decline power goes to Politburo.

By 1923, another stroke; left with paralysis and cant talk

Lenins testament

Said what should happen when he dies, critical of both Trotsky and Stalin, admits they are both next in line, but he isnt praising them, had a revised version and says Stalin should be kicked out, This was hidden because Stalin threatened Lenins wife

How was Stalins job as general secretary beneficial?

Stalin was able to choose local party leaders and secretarys throughout the Soviet Union, he decides who joins the party and who doesnt, also has power to fire people so he controls the bottom

Where Trotsky messed up (1923-1924)

He formed ''oppostion'' within the party (which went against what Lenin wanted), this causes Triumvirate to bring up everything Trotsky has done to oppose Lenin. Stalin begins firing people who support Trotsky so he loses a lot of support out of fear of Stalin

1926: Zinoviev, Kamenev, and Trotsky take on Stalin

Trotsky gets kicked out, Zinoviev removed as leader

Joseph Stalin

Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashevilli. born 1879 in Georgia

didnt learn Russian until he was 9, so he didnt learn to speak it great and mumbles a lot.,

Parents were born in serfdom, father was an alcoholic and beat his wife and kids.,

1888 he started going to school, took him 6 years to complete a 4 year program, but he did graduate top of his class so he wasnt dumb

Stalin in Tiflis Theological Seminary

spent 5 years here. gets into trouble early on. Lots of books are ban during this time and he would get caught with them,

He is a hotbed for Georgian nationalism, expelled for rebellious actions, becomes a marxist

"Man of Steel"

in 1912 changes name

Marriage and Stalin

married in 1905, she died during childbirth.

Stalin said it was the only woman he ever loved.

Lenin and Stalin (the beginning)

met in 1905, helps him get elected to the Bolshevik party in 1912

Stalins arrival in Petrograd

1917, Petrograd Bolsheviks dont like him, but Lenin supports him

Stalins job as commissar of Nationalities

First job, got it because of Lenin.,

Big job with no support staff. it was a way to give him power, but keep him in the background

Stalin named General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party

1922, becomes helpful because he is able to fire and hire people

Five year plans

First focussed on Steele and Iron, Tractors, and Heavy machinery,

This was the most needed in order to help build a lot more stuff to help them catch up with the rest of the world.

Was finished in 4 years

Problems with five year plans

Lack of resources and planning, emphasis on overfulfillment.,

other industries neglected:., (there were electricity outages all the time, government is slow to send help, so then they are slowed down).,

Fastest industrial growth of any country

Characteristics and consequences of five year plans

most growth in 2nd FYP, industrial imbalance, housing and consumer good shortages, food shortages, lack of techological know-how, industrial waste, quality sacrificed for quantity

Now go into detail about the consequences of FYP

there was no enough electricity, railroads, etc.,

textile industry, lots of people who need clothes but cant get them (boots especially hard to get).,

Many families shared rooms, housing was terrible, government didnt care about basic things for the home (like shampoo and deodorant).,

work force is mostly former peasants so it takes time before soviets can fix things on their own.,

lots of waste since they are producing so much (instead of covering equipment they bury it)

peoples terrible lives are their sacrifice for their country.,

this will all get better, but for now it is kind of terrible

Stakhanovite movement in industry

workers that overfulfil their capacities. go above and beyond

Others become encouraged to do more so they could get rewarded, but could also get you into trouble, being lynched/beaten by fellow workers

Proletraiat Industrial Labor

Stakhanovite movement, black boards, skilled vs. unskilled workers, mobility of workers had to be curtailed, poor living conditions

now go into detail about industrial labor

black boards: name on it, and meant that you were a bad worker, managers would encourage collective shaming of people on the boards

skilled work paid 4-8x more, had other privleages: separate stores that had better products and food, average stay of worker in mining industry was 4 months

See internal passports, peasants were given them, not allowed to leave famine lands, like these passports are so they cant leave

living in wooden baracks, tents

The Great Terror, 1936-1938)

Between 4-10 million die from unnatural causes, purges in all aspects of society, starts with party members and spreads throughout society

Party purges

This is common, but the nature of them changes in the 30s (in the 20s they were exiled/demoted, start to see people being killed)

NKVD increases surveillance (new secret police, larger and more active)

Occurs in Red army and among Party members throughout the Soviet Union

Causes of the Great Terror

1932- Ruitin criticizes Stalin

1934- Kirov assassination

1936- Ezhove and the NKVD (new leader of NKVD, was a paranoid guy determined to find these enemies of the state

Show trials

Show trials

torture, kidnappings to force confessions.,

Big 3:.,


If factory wasnt metting quotas they could be accused of sabotage

what were the big 3

trials of highest members of party accused of doing these things, family members are captured, lots confessed just to stop the torture

In 1936 Sinoviev and Kaminev (who were with Stalin at the beginning) were shot and killed, families were help captive

Popular reactions to purges

War mentality is all around, everyone was scared, every Ezhov was accused and shot, leads to fear of criticizing regime in later years

Stalinist culture

cultural revolution!, Shakhty trial, purges of various institutions ensue

Lenins beliefs of Stalinist culture

Lenin didnt think it was possible to create a socialisit culture (or thought it would at least take a long amount of time). But Stalin does it; theres a huge emphasis on class

Stalinist culture and education

class origins become important, schools purged of kulaks/bourgeois and their children, proletarian education

(although they kick out kulaks you see more poor people able to go to school)

By 1933 1/6 of all factory workers and engineers had been blue colored unskilled workers in 1928, 1/2 the plant managers had been unskilled workers in 1928

Marxism/Leninism dominates culture (in the Stalinist culture)

rejection of bourgeois and western culture literature, art, and music

:., Jazz music banned, most western literature is off limits, see socialist realism: becomes acceptable form of art. this means that all art, music, and literature should be proletarian in nature for the masses. art should depict the achievements of socialism. Stalin in the chief music, literary, and music critic.,

Difference between Communism and Facism

National vs. International.,

classes vs. classless society.,

facists- trying to achieve national greatness

commu: trying t take over the state so the economy is equal

Soviet Union (leading up to WWII)

normalizes relations with other Western States,

Joins league of nations (1934),

Treaty of friendship with France, Czechoslivakia (1935 and 1936).,

Spanish Civil War

comintern (advocated world communism), popular front against Facism, Germany and Italy support Franco, Soviet Union lends support to anti facist forces, Franco emerges victorious (1939)

Cool war because most countries declare neutrality (except Germany, Italy, and Soviets)., Soviets send money, weapons to popular front thats fighting against facism (Franco)

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

1939; Soviet-German non-aggression pact.,

Russians and poles hate each other, but they want to protect it because its like they dont like them, but they dont want Hitler to have it either.,

Its a non-aggression pact where they agree to not fight, and devide Poland amoung themselves

Germany invades Poland Sept 1, 1939 (this treaty was signed in August)

It was a way to buy time for the Germans so they didnt have to fight a two front war quite yet, Stalin signs it because Russia isnt ready for war

Operation Barbarossa

June 22, 1941:

German invasion of the Soviet Union.,

largest military campaign in world history.,

germans take Latvia, Lithuania, Belerussia, and parts of Ukraine.,

By the end of 1941 Leningrad, Smolensk, Odessa, and Moscow are under attack by the end of the year

Operations Barbarossas impact on the Soviets

They were caught off guard, lost people, industry, natural resources, agriculture.

70% coal, iron, ore taken, 1/2 steel making., 2/3 of industry is lose, 85% of air craft factories taken

Military Issues with the Russians

lack of arms, Red army purged out the best officers, lack of fornification/defenses

The Soviet Union Rises from operation barbarossa

Full mobilization of the Soviet population:


peace with orthodox church (relax restrictions, allow people to engage in religious practice).,

Patriotic novels published, radios confiscated (to avoid German propoganda).,

Partisans attack behind enemy lines (like patriotic guerillas).,

Siege of Leningrad:

longest siege in world history (900 days)., 1 million leningraders die (starvation disease).,

industry moved beyond the Urals:

helped that Russia was so big, so this retreat strategy has worked before (with Napolean)

Germans defeated at the battle of moscow

First major victories in the war, Germans forced to retreat.

US enters the war, Lend-Lease Aid begins:

extended to soviet union, not just britain, gave a lot more to brits than russians`

Battle of Stalingrad

lot of street battles, Hitler wanted Stalingrad because it was big industry center and symbolic.,

Stalin orders no retreat,

any russian caught is deemed a traitor, they should have stayed and died in battle.,

Firebombing by the Germans, fight to take the city street by street:

Aug 1942- Jan 1943, by mid november Germans have 90% of the city

Battle of Stalingrad, Soviets counterattack!

Nov 1942., Soviets counterattack.,

German forced to surrender:.,

turing point in the war, from this point on Germans will constantly be pushed back

Battle of Kursk

largest tank battle in world history.,

Russia pushed Germany out of Soviet territory and into Eastern Europe.,

By the end of 1943 Germans almost out completely, 1944 they are pushed out of Leningrad, May 1944 out of Findland, Hugary and Ukraine is liberated


June, 1944

Finally, a second front is started in Europe.,

Allies enter Germany in 1945

how did the Soviet Union defeat Germany in WWII

western powers like to take credit for defeating Hitler, but they had been reluctant to take him on in areas when he was strong.,

The vast majority of German deaths/defeats are on the Eastern front agaist Russia and the Soviet union.,

Hitler underestimated industrial and military might of the Soviet Union.,

-command economy works out well in war-time, lend-lease aid important in shortening the war (but the Soviets could have defeated Germany without it, 10% of tanks were provided by the US, 12% aircraft)

Purges allowed for fear so no one criticized the war efforts, Stalin emerges a good leader

Death and destruction of Soviet Union from WWII

16 million deaths/pows due to war.,

12 million civilian deaths.,

3.2 million of the 5.8 million POWs die after the war.,

25 million Soviets homeless

1/3 of total wealth destroyed.,

Germans destroy 1700 towns, 70k villages, 30k factories, 65km of railway lines, 1/3 of idustry and agriculture destroyed, demographic crisis as over 20 million men died during the war

Stalinism returns after the war is over

everything from the 20s and 30s returns (5 yr plans, purges, etc.).,

Crackdown on Soviet population:.,

ethnic/nationalist groups targeted that had been under German control during the war., various republics resist reintegration into the Soviet Union.,

Military hierarchy and POWs:.,

Stalin sees war heros as a threat to his power, military hierarchy purged again, POWs deemed traitors (some shot when they came back, others were sent to prison camps for various sentences).,

Communist party is purged again:.,

69% of total members by end of war had joined during the war. Stalin sees them as suspicious, many kicked out.,

Collectivization of agriculture reinforced:.,

only 45% of population are farmers now.,

4th five year plan launched:.,

good to overcome pre-war industrial levels, do this in 4 years

Factors that led to cold war

Ideological differences:

liberal capitolism vs. communism


WWI- 'hot war', tensions rise

2nd front controversy

Security interests:

UN/Collective security.,

security belt, buffer zones

Economic Interests:.,

Soviets feel economically isolated and betrayed by former allies

Personality of leaders

1949, a good year for the cold war (cold war becomes solidated)

Berlin blockade, Eastern Europe goes red, Soviets detonate atomic weapon, China falls to communism (creates the fear of communism spreading throughout Asia), US-NSC-68 (all communism is the same and comes from Soviet Union), Korean War (first of many proxy wars)

Death of Stalin

1953, died of stroke in sleep.,

had just started to purge medical community so some think he may have been killed, lots of mixed emotions, power struggles ensued not long tho

Khrushchev Era (1954-1964)

nothing like Stalin (immediately tried to clear prisoners. people still not supposed to speak out against the government but wont get murdered for it

Nikita Khrushchev

born into russian peasanty in 1894. as a teenager he worked as a minor in ukraine and exposed to marxist literature and became a marxist. did a lot of organizing for minors. joined red army and became an official party member. after the war, went to school and studied agriculture. head of communist party in Ukraine. became secretary of central committee

Khrushchevs Reforms

economic and industrial reforms:

reduced working hours, increased welfare benefits, prefabricated housing, military and space industries excel

Virgin lands program

Begin agriculture in Siberia, the Volga, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, etc., plant wheat and corn, idea is to expand agriculture in areas that have never felt the plow

Issues: unfamilar, waste, lack of fertile soil, grain decreases

agricultural output increases 74%, but not enough. had to buy grain from the us


Krush criticizes Stalin, relaxes censorship, more le-way with culture

Krush and cold war

called for peaceful coexistence, lets compete economically, win the hearts and minds

Sino-Soviet split (China)

Chinese opposed to peaceful conexistence. Soviets wont give them access to their nuclear technology, China wants to be the leader spreading communism

Soviet American Relations

1960- U2 incident

spy plane used by us flew over chinese and soviet areas, shot down over soviet territory, taken captive, Eisenhower refused to ackowledge that they were spying so Krush gets really mad

1961- Berlin Wall

Seperates East Berlin and West.

embarrassing having people run from communist side to capitolist side.

considered a foreign policy defeat for both Krush and kennedy

1962- Cuban Missile Crisis

1964- Fall of Krushchev

Communist party under Brezhnev

Aging of the party members, Krush reforms liquidated (no term limits, end de-Stalinization), the party military and KGB rule together, conservative group who is naturally anti reform

Domestic Life (under Brezhnev)

improved standard of living, still low compared to the west, lots of corruption in the party, agriculture becomes wage workers, private plots reinstated, emphasis on military/defense, bad environmental effects, corruption in benefits/welfare programs, life expectancy drops, lack of contraception for women leads to a high rate of abortions, women still lack status and power of men,

Nikhail Gorbachev (1985)

B. 1931, too young to be affected by Stalins purges, born into a collective farm, raised in an agricultural environment, went to college and became a lawyer, became party secretary, put in charge of agriculture

he was young and lacked siege mentality, open to reform, wants a more humane communism and sees that they need to change, at this time the economy is stagnant, party is ready for reform, he wants reform NOT to abolish communism

12th Five year plan

allows for small capitalist sector, cooperatives (high prices harassment by KGB and black market entrepreneurs,

Agriculture during this time

mixture of collective farms and private enterprise

by 1991

Soviet economy nearing collapse


Policy that called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union

Gorbachev and the Cold War

Halted nuclear weapons testing, deployment of weapons to Eastern Europe, called for arms inspections

Gorbachev and Reagan

Meet in Geneva in 1985,

sign arms treaty in 1987,

pulls out of Afhanistan and doesnt interfere in Eastern Europe (Feb 1989), Gorbachev stops giving aid to liberation people in Africa and doesnt do anything about Berlin Wall going down, won nobel peace prize 1990

Democracy within the Communist party

wanted to bring more demoncracy into the party, wants to allow more people to be able to run for office and vote, restoration of power of soviets, openness with debate, kicks out 'old guard' leaders, in 1988 they have their first conference televised and by 1990 the party has to compete for electoral victories, lots of political groups become active

The Big Deal

accomondations that emerged between the middle class and the regime in the Soveit Union,,

the ownership of private property was not only accepted but also protected from public encroachment .,

the little deal

reform and change were confined to the micorleve, mainly in the forms of increased policital and economic freddom within close kinship and friendship networks and greater tolerarance of petty private enterprises and trade. these were the main components of the little deal.,

afforded the russians increased freedom to wheel and deal at the microlevel of Soviet society, while at the macrolevel managerial diescreation was restrained, overt policial dissent was persecuted and generally repressed, and a gray conservative pallor overspread the regime.,

Freddom of petty private economic transactions was accompanied by greater freedom of associate and of private conversation (and criticism)

The august coup


days before singing the union treating that would have refashioned the soviet federation, Gorbachev went on vacation, during which time his chief lieutenants announced that he was being replaced.,

gorbachev refused to give into the consprirators, newly self proclaimed leaders failed to take control.

Stalin vs. Trotsky on Communism

Stalin all about socialism in one country, while Trotsky believed it should be spread through continuous international revolutions

De-stalinization: Khrushchevs Speech

De-Stalinisation meant an end to the role of large-scale forced labor in the economy.,

In 1956 Krushevs speech shocked listers by denouncing Stalins dictatorial rule, and said his cult of personality was incosisten with communist and party ideology.,

Krush condemmed the treatment of the Old bolsheviks (who had supported communism before the revolution, many of whom were Stalin had executed).,

he renamed places and building and destroyed monuments of Stalin.,

Why did Stalin input collectivization

This was intended to increase agricultural output from large-scale mechanized farms, to bring the peasantry under more direct political control, and to make tax collection more efficient.