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30 Cards in this Set

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What is metaphylaxis in reference to calves & respiratory dz?
tx of group of high risk cavles for prevention of respiratory dz

pretty much any AB used: chloramphenicol, ceftiofur, fluoroquinolones, penicillin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, tylosin, -mycins

single SQ injection in neck provides 3-4 d. protection
What are some diseases of the nasal cavity that affect ruminants?
mycotic nasal granuloma
atopic rhinitis/enzootic nasal granuloma
nasal FBs
nasal trauma/fx
nasal tumors/polyps: rare
congenital cystic nasal turbinates
Oestrus ovis infestation
Oestrus ovis infestation

a. signalment
b. signs
c. dx
d. tx
a. bots in nasal cavity of sheep & less commonly goats
b. rhinitis, sneezing, snorting, nasal d/c, stridor, head held low, stomping feet, warm months
c. endoscopy
d. ivermectin (no specific control)
sinusitis

a. causes
b. signs
c. dx
d. tx
a. dehorning (frontal sinus), infected teeth (maxillary sinus), etc.
b. anorexia, lethargy, reluctance to move, fever, head held at odd angle, pain
c. PE, percussion, sinus-centesis, rads, culture, cytology
d. trephination, parenteral ABs, flunixin
pharyngeal trauma

a. causes
b. etiologic agents
c. dx
d. tx
a. balling guns, dose syringes, grass awns, FBs (nails, wires), etc. --> cellulitis, abscesses
b. A. pyogenes, Actinobacillus, Pasteurella, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Staph, etc.
c. palpation, oral cavity exam, endoscopy, rads
d. drainage/flushing, systemic ABs, flunixin, supportive
necrotic laryngitis (calf diphtheria, laryngeal necrobacillosis)

a. signalment
b. pathogenesis
c. signs
d. tx
a. common in young cattle (3-18 mo.), esp. feedlot
b. trauma to larynx --> laryngeal contact ulcers allow invasion by Fusobacterium necrophorum
c. acute moist painful cough, dyspnea, stertor, open mouth breathing, head & neck extended, +/- fever, anorexia, salivation, painful swallowing
untreated animals may die w/in 2-7 d.
d. drugs of choice: sulfonamides, penicillin
NSAIDs, tracheostomy, supportive
tracheal edema syndrome of feedlot cattle (tracheal stenosis, "honker cattle")

a. acute form: signalment, signs
b. acute form: tx
c. chronic form: signalment, signs
d. chronic form: tx
acute form
a.acute dyspnea in heavy feedlot cattle during warm weather
b. ABs, steroids, NSAIDs
chronic form
c. dry hacking cough in lighter cattle
d. no tx
mycotic nasal granulomas

a. etiologic agents
b. signs
c. dx
d. tx
a. Rhinosporidium, Helminthosporium, Aspergillus, Phycomycetes
b. upper resp. noise, dyspnea, mucopurulent nasal d/c +/- epistaxis
c. endoscopy, bx, culture
d. usually not done: salvage may be practice
if done: sx, sodium iodide
atopic rhinitis/enzootic nasal granuloma

a. pathogenesis
b. signs
c. dx
d. tx
a. allergic rhinitis (often plant pollen or fungal spore) --> granulomas
b. seasonal: rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal pruritis, dyspnea, stertor, nasal d/c
c. endoscopy, bx, culture, eosinophils in nasal secretions
d. usually none
remove allergens, antihistamines, steroids
What are the 3 clinical classifications of pneumonia in ruminants?
bronchial
metastatic
interstitial
What are the signs & causes of bronchial pneumonia?
cranioventral pattern of lung sounds/lesions, fever, depression, sepsis

bacteria, viruses in resp. dz complex: esp. Mannheimia hemolytica: enter via pulmonary tree
What are the signs & causes of metastatic pneumonia?
sepsis, widespread pulmonary lesions, hemoptysis

septic embolization of lungs from other sites
What are the signs & causes of interstitial pneumonia?
animals not depressed or septic, diffuse lesions, abnormal lung sounds

usually noninfectious (toxins, allergens): no response to ABs
What is the largest cause of economic loss in feedlot calves, lambs, & a common cause of dairy calf death losses?
respiratory dz complex (RDC)
What are the big 4 respiratory viruses vaccinated against in cattle?
bovine herpesvirus 1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis)
bovine viral diarrhea virus
parainfluenza virus type 3
bovine respiratory syncytial virus
What is the tx for respiratory dz complex?
antimicrobial therapy
-tx early/long enough & w/ right drug
-past performance also used to select drug
-evaluate response: rectal temp, degree of illness
*if no response after 3 d., may change drug
-tx until signs of fever, toxemia, & dyspnea absent for 48 hrs.
-sheep & goats: ceftiofur, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, penicillin, erythromycin
-mass medication: various ABs used (injection or oral)

anti-inflammatory therapy: NSAIDs (flunixin), corticosteroids, antihistamines
What are some ways to prevent respiratory dz complex?
feedlot calf pneumonia
-preconditioning: assuring that at least 3 wks before shipping, calves are weaned, fed in bunks, castrated, dehorned, treated for parasites, vaccinated against respiratory pathogens --> ↓ morbidity & mortality
-minimize transport time
-limit mixing of calves
-control dust
-maintain adequate hydration
-process at feedlot after 12 hr. rest but w/in 48 hrs. of arrival
-mass AB tx on arrival (metaphylaxis) may be indicated for some high risk groups: tetracyclines, sulfonamides, tilmicosin, etc.

vaccination
-viruses: PI-3, BHV-1, BVDV, BRSV
-bacteria: products available for Manheimia (Pasteurella) & Histophilus spp.
*variable efficacy: used less commonly
aspiration pneumonia

a. causes
b. signs
c. tx
a. careless drenching/stomach tubing, pail fed calves, animals w/ swallowing disorders
b. immediate death or gangreous pneumonia
c. ABs, anti-inflammatories, supportive (guarded px)
contagious bovine pleuropneumonia

a. etiologic agent
b. occurrence
a. Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides --> fatal bronchopneumonia
b. eradicated from US
contagious caprine pleuropneumonia

a. etiologic agent
b. occurrence
a. Mycoplasma F38 --> fatal pneumonia
b. Africa, Middle East, Asia
Mycoplasma pneumonia of goats

a. transmission
b. signs d/t M. mycoides mycoides
c. dx
d. tx
a. milk or colostrum
b. septicemia, polyarthritis, pneumonia, mastitis in kids & does
c. isolation from milk, joint fluid, etc.
d. ABs (tylosin, tetracycline) may ↓ signs but not eliminate carrier state
vena caval thrombosis & metastatic pneumonia

a. pathogenesis
b. primary causes
c. etiologic agents
a. septic emboli from thrombi in caudal (most common) or cranial vena cava --> MF lung abscesses
b. liver abscesses assoc. w/ rumenitis (grain overload), jugular phlebitis, mastitis, metritis
c. F. necrophroum, A. pyogenes, Staph, Strep, E. coli
vena caval thrombosis & metastatic pneumonia

a. signalment
b. signs
c. tx
a. cattle > 1 yr.
b. resp. signs w/ anemia, widespread, wheezes, hemoptysis, & epistaxis are classic
may die of massive intrapulmonary bleeding or hemoptysis
may see leukocytosis, hyperglobulinemia
c. salvage most practical d/t grave px
valuable cases: ABs
What is acute respiratory dz syndrome (ARDS)?
interstitial pneumonia

sudden onset of dyspnea & any combination of following lesions: congestion & edema, hyaline membranes, alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, interstitial emphysema
acute bovine pulmonary edema & emphysema (ABPEE): atypical interstitial pneumonia, "fog fever"

a. epidemiology
b. pathophysiology
c. clinical signs
a. adult cattle (> 2 yrs) changed from dry sparse forages to lush green pastures
nursing calves resistant
usually herd outbreaks
b. L-tryptophan in lush forage converted by rumen microbes to indole acetic acid & 3-methylindole (3-MI)
3-MI absorbed to blood & converted to toxic compound --> cell damage --> degeneration, necrosis, edema, hyaline membranes, cellular proliferation, & emphysema
c. acute onset severe dyspnea w/ loud expiratory grunt, frothing at mouth, open mouth breathing, tachypnea, distressed but not depressed, +/- fever, +/- tachycardia
-recovering cases: tachypnea/hyperpnea, harsh breath sounds, crackles/wheezes over caudal lung fields, SQ emphysema
-NOT coughing
acute bovine pulmonary edema & emphysema (ABPEE): atypical interstitial pneumonia, “fog fever”

a. tx
b. prevention
a. numerous treatments attempted: none clearly effective
-if attempted: furosemide + flunixin
b. gradual intro to lush pastures
-delay use of lush pasture until after frost
-cut/windrow lush pasture before grazing
-graze w/ adults after grazing by younger cattle
-use pasture before lush
-continuous strip grazing
-prophylactic meds: monensin (1 d. before pasture change + 10 additional days) or lasalocid (pre-tx for 6 d.): ↓ conversion of tryptophan to 3-MI
4-ipomeanol (moldy sweet potato) toxicity

a. cause
b. dz progression
c. tx
a. ingestion of furanoterpenoid toxin in sweet potatoes infested w/ fungus Fusarium solani
b. herd outbreak w/ high morbidity/mortality: signs occur w/in 1 d. of exposure & death follows 2-5 d. later
c. as for ABPEE
What are some causes of ARDS?
ABPEE
moldy sweet potato toxicosis
perilla ketones (purple/perilla mint)
Brassica spp. (kale, rape, turnip tops)
coliform mastitis

a. etiologic agents
b. route of entry
c. signs
a. E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter
b. via teat end from environment
c. sudden onset of single quarter flare up w/ serous/watery secretions +/- systemic signs (high fever, depression, anorexia, etc.)
-affected quarter: diffuse swelling d/t endotoxin diffusing thru gland
coliform mastitis

a. dx
b. tx
c. prevention
a. milk culture from acute cases
b. ABs of limited value: bacteria probably gone by time signs noticed: should tx if severe
-supportive therapy: fluids, NSAIDs, frequent milking
c. bacterins (ex. J-5 vaccine)