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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

disposition of chemicals

absorption, distribution, biotransformation, elimination


determine concentration at the site of action and dictates the potential for adverse events to occur

main sits of absorption

GI tract, lungs, and skin


the transfer of a chemical from the site of exposure into the systemic circulation; enters bloodstream

rate of absorption depends on

concentration, area exposed, characteristics of the layer, blood circulation, phisiochemical properties

amphiphillic molecules

contains both hydrophobic and hydrophobic moieties

saturated fatty acids

maximizes London dispersion interactions; melting point increase b/c of straight chain

unsaturated fatty acids

predominantly cis configuration, melting point is lower b/c of bent chain

integral/intrinsic proteins

associate tightly with the membrane through the hydrophobic interactions

lipid-linked protiens

anchored to membrane through covalently attached lipids

peripheral/extrinsic proteins

loosely connected to membranes and can be dissociated by mile procedures

passive process

high concentration to low concentration


low concentration to high concentration

paracellular diffusion

small hydrophillic molecules travel through aqueous pores

transcellular diffusion

hydrophobic molecules diffuse across the lipid domain

negative logP

water soluble

positive logP

lipid soluble

facilitated diffusion

transportation where substrate is not moved against a concentration gradient, and the transport process does not require input energy

active transport

movement against concentration gradient; saturability at high concentration selectivity of certain structures; requires energy

ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC)

binding and hydrolysis of ATP provides the energy required to move their substrates across memebranes

lipid soluble compounds move by


water soluble chemicals move by

diffuse transcellular pores and/or across the cell membrane

highly ionized/hydrophillic xenobiotics move by

specialized membrane carrier systems

absorption increases with ______ particle diameter


pH of stomach


pH of small intestine


weak organic acids are absorbed more through the stomach or small intestine


organic bases are absorbed more through the stomach or small intestine

small intestine

factors influencing absorption through the skin

strength of outer-most skin; hydration of the outer-most skin; temperature; solvents size and physical properties

caustic agents _____ skin permeability


increase in temp will ____ dermal penetration by ____ blood flow

increase; increase

intravenous route

introduces toxicant directly to bloodstream

factors affecting distribution

binding to plasma proteins; special barriers; distribution to storage sites that are not target sites; export from cells

two organs that accumulate chemicals

liver and kidneys


biotransformation that eliminates ultimate toxicant or prevents its formation (liver and kidney)


physical mechanism of the removal of xenobiotics from the blood and their return to the external environment (urine; feces; lungs)