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45 Cards in this Set

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Meccan vs Medinan

Meccan: Chapters are at the end, they’re shorter and more accommodating. These areuniversal usually. These aren’t violent because Muhammad was in mecca trying to gainfollowers, so it’s more accommodating to religions.


Medinan: chapters are at the beginning, they’re longer, more violent. These were writtenduring the time when Muhammad escaped, longer, more complex. Greater interactionwith Judaism and Christianity.

Abyssinian empire

christian/ethopian empire-majority of area pagen, christian

Byzantine Empire

christian empire, had its foot in surrounding area

Adhan

call for prayer

Allah

God, Scared name

forbidden food for muslims

blood


swine


meat not properly sacrificed


food scarified in any other name than Allah's

Apostolic Decree

council of Jerusalem (50 CE)


what foods are not okay for Christians to eat


similar rules to Qur'anic rules

Book of Jubilees

2nd century BCE Jewish text


found in Ethiopian orthodox christian Bible


Genesis- with more detail (Abraham converts from paganism to absolute monotheism)

Five Pillars of Islam

Testimony of faith(Shahadah)


prayer(Salat)


giving to the poor(zakah)


fasting(Ramadan)


Pilgrimage to Mecca(Haji)



Dhikr

"remembrance"


devotional acts in Islam in which sort phrases or prayers are repeatedly recited silently within the heart or aloud

Din

refers to the path along which righteous Muslims travel in order to comply with divine law, or Shari'a, and to the divine judgement or recompense to which all humanity must inevitably face without intercessors before God

Yawm Ad-Din

God is merciful but god is just. "Day of Judgement" This is apocalyptic, the final judgement, the resurrection, end of time

Hadith

Traditions that are not contained in the Quran that are viewed as authoritative in Islam.


These have many stories about Muhammad some stories are viewed as more reliable than others.


This is the core that Muslims consider to be their main text.


written around 700 AD

Halal

Anything okay for Muslims to do or eat


'Kosher' for Muslims

Hajj

Pilgrimage to Mecca


Muslims are supposed to take once in their lives

Hijra

Emigration "year of flight"

Id al-Fitr

"The exemption"


end of the 30 day fast


feast that follows the period of fasting

Infancy Gospel of Thomas

was a text written about Jesus when he was a child


Turning clay birds into real birds(giving life)


Quran references this



Khadija

Muhammad's wife


wealthy widow


15 years older



Jinn

Genies made out of fire


free will


judged with the humans

Majunn

possessed

Hawa

poetic inspiration

Jizya

special ta in order to live in Muslim lands (if not muslim) with certain protection

Dhimmis

Sharia:


Jews and Christians=protected ones but with limited rights


can't convert Muslims


second class citizens


pay jizya

Kaaba

Pagens go on pilgrimage


worship cube

Jihad

Muslim crusade(holy war)


Greater jihad: conquering yourself, spiritual struggle of thoughts


Lesser jihad: militant, violent fight

Quran

Bible for Islam


primary source


everything considered accurate and true

Minaret

Distinctive architectural feature of mosques used for the call to prayer(adham)

Night of Power and Excellence

610


Muhammad received the first revelation

People of the book

Jew


Christians

Qiblah

"Direction" to pray facing to maecca

Ramadan

9 month of th eIslam year where Muslims dont eat or drink at night


commemorates the nigth of power and excellence


read the whole Quran

Tawhid

Absolute Monotheism

Raham

mercy

Sura

Chapters within the Quran

Ayat

"sign"


indicates something beyond itself


implicit (an image) or linguistic


sign in nature

Quraysh

Muhammad's prominent tride he was born into

Abraham in the Quran

his son is supposed to be the patriarch of Islam

610 CE

The night of power and excellence


Muhammad saw first revelation from Allah

622 CE

Year 1 in Muslim calender


Muhammad kicked out of Mecca for idol business


preaching in medina, establishes Islam


expanded and took over Mecca

Rabbinic parallels with the Quran

believed God was speaking with angels during creation

Iblis/shaytan

exception to the angels, it doesn't follow God


doesn't bow down to abraham


spirit doesn't have free will


shaytan- another name for the devil

Angels



Spiritual they have no free will and are made out of light

Sharia

Islamic law


dictates dress code


use Quran


Hadith


legal experts

done

done