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50 Cards in this Set

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What is the main function of the respiratory system?

Gas exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen

In a general sense, how is carbon dioxide formed in the body and what happens to it after formation?

Carbon dioxide is a waste product of ATP formation and is removed from the body by the respiratory system

What are the two zones of the respiratory system and what are their functions?

A conducting zone filters, delivers and moisters the air


A respiratory zone is involved in gas exchange

Match the nasal cavity structure with its function


a) external nose


b) conchae


c) paranasal sinuses




1) causes turbulence for air filtration


2) hairs filter dust


3) warms and humidifies air

a - 2


b - 1


c - 3

What are the names of the four paranasal sinuses?

Frontal, sphenoidal, ethmoidal, maxillary

What are the three regions of the pharynx?

Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngophyarynx

Name the structure that prevents food or liquid entering the nasopharynx during swallowing

the soft palate

What is the role of the epiglottis?

The epiglottis closes off the superior larynx during swallowing to prevent food/ liquid entering the lungs

Which conducting zone is also known as the voice box and is suspended from the hyoid bone?

The larynx

T/F: the pharynx is supported by 9 pieces of cartilage held in place by ligaments and muscle

F: the LARYNX is held in place by 9 pieces of cartilage which are held in place by ligaments and muscles

Name the cartilage comprising the cartilage rings on the trachea and the elastic sheets connecting them

Tracheal cartilage; anular ligaments

What component of the conducting zone is also known as the windpipe?

The trachea

State each structure in the bronchial tree from largest to smallest

L. and R. primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, respiratory surfaces (alveoli)

Which of the following DOES NOT occur as the structures in the bronchial tree decrease in size?




a) smooth muscle decreases


b) epithelium lining thins


c) supporting cartilage decreases


d) none of the above



a) amount of smooth muscle increases as structures decrease in size. In comparison, epithelium lining becomes thinner and the supporting cartilage decreases.

What effect does abnormal constriction of the bronchial tree have on the lungs?

Abnormal constriction restricts air flow into the lungs

The lungs rest on top of the _______ _______ and are separated from each other by the ________

thoracic diaphragm; mediastinum

What is the name of the double layered membrane covering the lungs?

The pleural membrane

T/F: the left lung has three lobes and two fissures whereas the right lung has two lobes and one fissure

F: the RIGHT lung has three lobes and two fissures whereas the LEFT lung has two lobes and one fissure

What are the names of the two fissures separating the superior, middle, and inferior lobe in the lung?

Oblique and horizontal

The ____ pleura lines the lung surface whereas the _______ pleura lines the surrounding walls. Space between the layers is called the _____ ______.

Visceral; parietal; pleural cavity

What does the alevoli act as a site for?

Gas exchange (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between blood and the air

What are alveoli lined with?

Thin flattened epithelial cells

Link the alveoli cell with the correct description


a) Type I


b) Type II


c) Alveolar macrophages




1) Secrets surfactant to prevent collapsing when moist by decreasing water tension


2) Immune cells which remove bacteria and dust


3) Major cell type, thin flattened in appearance, that provides the site for gas exchange

a - 3


b - 1


c - 2

What causes gas pressure in a container and what occurs to the pressure if the container volume is increased?

Random collisions of gas molecules against the container cause gas pressure. If the volume is increased, collision frequency decreases, resulting in an overall decrease in pressure.

T/F: pressure is directly proportional to volume

F: pressure is inversely proportional to volume

T/F: carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli whereas oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood

T

Which of the following is CORRECT?


a) Muscles control air entering the lungs


b) Outside conc. must be smaller than the inside conc. for air to enter the lungs


c) Inside pressure must be greater than outside pressure for air to enter the lungs


d) Outside pressure must be greater than inside pressure for air to enter the lungs

d) outside pressure must be greater than inside pressure for air to enter the lungs

Volume of the ______ cavity affects lung volume. This volume is altered by contraction and relaxation of the ______ muscles.

Thoracic; respiratory

T/F: the pleural cavity pressure is always greater than the lung pressure

F: The pleural cavity pressure is always LESS THAN the lung pressure

Why is the pleural cavity pressure important?

Optimal pleural cavity pressure ensures lungs remain attach to the thoracic cavity wall

At what point in ventilation does lung volume equal lung pressure?

At rest



At what point in ventilation does lung volume equal atmospheric pressure?

At rest

T/F: At inspiration, V < P

F: At inspiration, lung volume is greater than lung pressure

State three things that occur in inspiration

- External intercostal muscles raise ribcage


- Diaphragm contracts inferiorly


- Thoracic cavity volume decreases


- Lung pressure decreases


- Atmospheric air moves in

T/F: Thoracic V decreases while lung P increases during exhalation

T

State three things that occur during exhalation

- internal intercostal muscles depress ribcage


- elastic tissue causes lungs to recoil


- thoracic volume decreases


- lung pressure increases


- air in lungs moves into the atmosphere

What is the name given to the condition when air enters a ruptured pleural cavity and a lung collapses?

Pneumothorax

What is used to measure different lung volumes?

Spirometer

Match the following ventilation terms with the appropriate definition


a) inspiratory reserve


b) expiratory reserve


c) residual volume


d) vital capacity




1) total amount of air moved in and out of lungs


2) additional air inhaled after tidal volume


3) remaining air in lungs after forced exhale


4) additional air exhaled after tidal exhale

a - 2


b - 4


c - 3


d - 1

What are three factors affecting ventilation?

- Alveolar ventilation


- Airway restriction


- Lung compliance

Lung compliance depends on proportion of _____ and ____ such that _____ allows lungs to expand and recoil whereas _____ makes lungs more resistant to ______

Elastin; collagen; elastin; collagen; stretch

What prevents alveoli collapsing from lung fluid surface tension?

Surfactant reduces the adhesive forces between water molecules meaning the surface tension is decreased

What causes respiratory distress syndrome?

Insufficient amounts of surfactant are produced resulting in collapsed alveoli

What occurs during an asthma attack?

airways become inflamed, smooth muscle contracts in spasms, bronchioles reduce airflow into lungs

What type of disorder is asthma?

Obstructive pulmonary disorder

What are two measurements that can estimate airway resistance?

- forced vital capacity


- forced expiratory volume

What percentage of breath should a healthy person's forced expiratory volume equal?

~80%

In which brain structure are respiratory centres located?




a) The parietal lobe


b) the brain stem


c) the hypothalamus


d) the cerebellum

b) the brain stem

What are the two factors that alter breathing rate and depth and what detects changes in these factors?

- Arterial partial pressure of CO2


- Arterial partial pressure of O2




Changes are detected by chemoreceptors

Where are central chemoreceptors found and what do they detect changes in?

In the medulla


Detect changes in PCO2