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107 Cards in this Set

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Main functions of the respiratory system

To exchange oxygen/carbon dioxide and to produce sound

Main divisions and parts of the respiratory system

upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract

Respiratory tract located outside the chest cavity

upper respiratory tract

Respiratory tract located inside the chest cavity

lower respiratory tract

Primary opening for air to enter the respiratory system

nostrils or nares

Contains nasal hairs to filter large dust particles

nostrils or nares

An alternate or secondary opening for air (not as healthy because it doesn't filter dust, germs). It is used more during exercise, colds, nasal injuries

mouth

Large cavity or chamber for filtering, warming, and moistening inhaled air

nasal cavities

Contains cilia and mucus membranes

nasal cavities

A wall of cartilage and bone tissue between the right and left halves of the nasal cavities

nasal septum

Three shelf-like bony projections on each side of the nasal cavities which increase surface area and cause the air and its particles to swing throwing dust particles outward against the sticky membrane wall

nasal conchae

Smaller cavities above nasal cavity for filtering, warming, and moistening inhaled air

sinus cavities

These affect the resonance or quality of a person's voice

sinus cavities

Another name for the roof of the mouth

palate

Separates mouth from nasal cavity so food and drink stay in mouth and helps when you produce certain sounds as you talk

palate

Consists of the hard palate in front and the soft palate in back

palate

Another name for the throat or back of the mouth

pharynx

The pharynx is subdivided into

nasopharynx, orapharynx, and laryngopharynx

Passageways from the nasal cavity to larynx and trachea

pharynx

A passageway from the mouth to the esophagus

pharynx

Contains openings from eustachian tubes and the tonsils

pharynx

Passageways from middle ear that empty into the back of the pharynx

eustachian tubes or auditory tubes

Equalize air pressure inside the ear

eustachian tubes or auditory tubes

Drain fluid form middle ear to reduce chance of infection in the ear

eustachian tubes or auditory tubes

Synthetic tubes are surgically put in eardrum in some children to drain fluid

eustachian tubes or auditory tubes

Soft flap of tissue extending downward from the soft palate

uvula

Prevents food from entering sinuses and nasal cavity as you swallow

uvula

Trigger the gag reflex so you will expel the food or object out of your mouth

uvula

Opening at top of larynx and trachea (opens when you inhale air)

glottis

Extends through larynx and vocal cords (the space between the vocal cords)

glottis

Flap of cartilage tissue which covers glottis (closes glottis)

epiglottis

Touch receptors in epithelial layer of laryngopharynx detect solids or liquids as food is swallowed and trigger this flap to close so food won't enter trachea and go down into lungs

epiglottis

Sometimes, this flap of tissue closes improperly, and food or drink could slip down into the top of the trachea

epiglottis

Another name for the voice box or Adam's apple

larynx

Consists of cartilage tissue and is located at top of the trachea and contains the vocal cords

larynx

The size and shape of this chamber and of the cords affect one's voice

larynx

The larynx is smaller and thinner in females which causes a _____ pitch

higher

The larynx is larger and thicker in males and causes a _____ pitch

lower

When the larynx is pulled tighter, it produces a _____ pitch

higher

Commonly called the windpipe

trachea

Is located in front of the esophagus

trachea

Contains c-shape cartilage rings

trachea

Is lined with mucus membranes and cilia which trap and sweep dust, germs upward

trachea

Contains touch receptors which can detect presence of food, drink, mucus, and then trigger the choking reflex or the coughing reflex

trachea

Sometimes called the bronchial tubes (the two main branches of the trachea)

bronchi

These are lined with cilia and mucus and contain cartilage rings (to keep them open) which eventually change to form cartilage plates and then finally smooth muscles deep within the lungs.

bronchi

The subdivisions or different branches of the bronchi are referred to as the

primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi

The point where the primary bronchi enter the lungs

hilus

The bronchial branch on the _____ side is shorter, wide, and more horizontal

right

Smaller tubes that branch from the bronchial tubes

bronchioles

They extend into alveolar ducts and take air to the air sacs and do not have any cartilage rings in them

bronchioles

They have walls made of smooth muscle tissue which contract or relax and help to regulate the flow of air in and out of air sacs

bronchioles

Commonly called microscopic air sacs

alveoli

Have very thin walls of simple squamous epithelial tissue for efficient gas exchange

alveoli

Produce surfactant

alveoli

Are very close to numerous capillaries for gas exchange

alveoli

Oxygen and carbon dioxide gases are exchanged here through the process of diffusion due to differences in pressure

alveoli

The largest main organs of the respiratory system (cone-shaped organs)

lungs

There are 2 lobes or sections on the left and 3 on the right side

lungs

Double-layered membrane that covers the outside of the lungs and lines thorax

pleura

Contains outer visceral pleura and inner parietal pleura

pleura

Has intrapleural space between and contains pleural fluid; reduces friction

pleura

Flat, pancake-shaped muscle that forms the floor of the thorax (sometimes dome-shaped)

diapghragm

Separates the thorax and abdomen

diaphragm

Contracts and drops lower to inhale air

diaphragm

Relaxes and raises higher to exhale air

diaphragm

Muscles located between the ribs

intercostal

Raise ribs upward and outward to inhale air

intercostal

Relaxes and raises higher to exhale air

intercostal

Sticky substance produced by epithelial tissue (goblet cells); lines most of respiratory passageways

mucus

Traps dust, germs, foreign substances from inhaled air

mucus

Microscopic hairlike structures lining much of respiratory passageways

cilia

Trap and filter dust and germs from the air inhaled

cilia

Sweep mucus up and out of lungs

cilia

The main part of the brain that controls breathing

medulla oblongata

Controls the actions of diaphragm and intercostal muscles in breathing

medulla oblongata

The lungs are surrounded by what two membranes

visceral pleura and parietal pleura

Pleura on the outer surface of each lung

visceral

Pleura on the inside of the chest cavity

parietal

The space between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura

pleural cavity or intrapleural space

The space between the lungs

mediastinum

For the lungs to inflate (expand), there must be a _____ intrapleural pressure

negative

Respiration process:


_____ + _____ ---> _____ + _____ + _____



Food (glucose) + oxygen --> energy (ATP) + carbon dioxide + water

Without _____, cells cannot produce the energy they need to perform their functions

oxygen

Two basic levels in the body at which respiration (gas exchange) occurs

external respiration and internal (cellular) respiration

Respiration that involves exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and outside of the body

external respiration

Respiration that involves exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood stream and cells

internal (cellular) respiration

Requires energy and the volume of the thorax or chest cavity increases

inspiration (inhaling)

The air pressure in the thorax or chest cavity decreases

inspiration (inhaling)

The air moves from the outside to the inside of the body

inspiration (inhaling)

The volume of the thorax or chest cavity decreases

expiration (exhaling)

The air pressure in the thorax or chest cavity increases

expiration (exhaling)

The air moves from the inside to the outside of the body

expiration (exhaling)

Involves contraction of muscles and is therefore an active process

inhalation

Involves relaxation of muscles and is therefore a passive process

exhalation

Stimulates the diaphragm to contract

phrenic nerve

Stimulates the intercostals to contract

intercostal nerve

When the nerves fire, the muscles _____

contract

When the nerves stop firing, the muscles _____

relax

Sends information to the brain to interrupt the inhaling process

vagus nerve

_____ of oxygen is carried by hemoglobin

98%

Iron-containing protein inside RBCs

hemoglobin

_____ of water is dissolved in blood plasma because it doesn't dissolve well in water/blood

2%

_____ bonds 200x more strongly to the same bonding site as oxygen would

carbon monoxide

Some is carried by hemoglobin in RBCs but it is carried on a different bonding site than oxygen; therefore it can be carried at the same time as the 4 oxygen molecules

carbon dioxide

Sense higher amounts of carbon dioxide

central chemo receptors

Stretch receptors in the lungs and thorax detect being stretched (to prevent over-inflation of lungs)

expiratory neuron center