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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the medications used for asthma.
Beta 2 agonists
1. Short acting inhaled- Albuterol
2. Long acting inhaled- Serevent
3. Oral beta2 agonist- albuterol
MOA of Albuterol
Activates beta2 adrenergic receptors in smooth muscle of lungs causing bronchodilation. Relaxes muscles to relieve bronchospasms.
IND: INH Albuterol
-Acute asthma attacks, acute bronchospasms
-Excacerbation of COPD, prohylaxis of excercise induced asthma
IND: po Albuterol
long term control--not used alone
PK: INH Albuterol
-fast onset of action, <5 min
-peak in 30-60 min
-duration 3-5 hours
-used prn: 1-2 puffs, 3-4x.day
PK: po Albuterol
AE: INH Albuterol
-minimal systemic effects: incr HR, palpitations, tremors
AE: po Albuterol
>adverse effects- incr HR, palpitations, angina, tremors.
MOA of Serevent
long acting, long term control
IND for Serevent
-prophylactic acute asthma or COPD
-nocturnal asthma
PK of Serevent
-dosing fixed, not used alone
-slower onset, 30 min
-duration, 12 hrs
AE of Serevent
minimal AE--can see slight incr HR, tremors.
MOA of Methylxathines: Theophylline
relax bronchial smooth muscle causing bronchodilation. Also causes some dec in inflammation, inc ability of cilia to clear mucus.
IND of Theophylline: po
maintenance tx for chronic asthma
IND of Theophylline: IV
acute attacks, emergency use only.
Serum Levels: Theophylline
Narrow therapeutic range. po 2-3x/day.
AE of Theophylline
at therapeutic levels: n/v, restlessness, insomnia
at toxic levels: severe dysrhythmias, seizures, cardioresp failure.
DI of Theophylline
-phenobarbital, dilantin
Name all meds for Anticholinergics
-Short acting: used for asthma--Atrovent
-Long acting: used for COPD--Spiriva
MOA for Atrovent
blocks muscarinic receptors in bronchi causing bronchodilation.
IND for Atrovent
-chronic asthma
-excercise induced asthma
PK for Atrovent
-action -<5mins
-duration - 6hrs
-used alone or in combo with beta 2 agonist--2 MDIs. Or combined in one MDI as Combivent or nebulizer med Duoneb.
AE for Atrovent
minimal--dry mouth, irritation of the pharynx
Name all anti-inflammatory meds
-Inhaled glucocorticoids
-Oral glucocorticoids:Prednisone
-Mast Cell stabilizers
-Leukotriene Modifiers
MOA of Glucocorticoids
suppress inflammation in airways, leads to a dec in bronchial hyperreactivity. Dec synthesis and release of anti-inflammatory mediators, dec mucus production and inc number and sensitivity of beta 2 receptors.
IND of Inhaled Glucocorticoids
-prophylaxis of chronic asthma, COPD.
-fixed schedule, 2-4 puffs, 2x/day. Not used for acute attacks.
AE of Inhaled Glucocoricoids
-irritation of pharynx
-oropharyngeal candidiasis
IND for Oral Glucocorticoid-Prednisone
-tx of asthma, COPD exacerbation--short term use 5-7 days, taper
-prophylaxis for chronic asthma, COPD--long term
AE for Oral Glucocorticoid-Prednisone
short term/acute: insomnia, mood swings, nausea
-adrenal suppression
-fluid and e-lyte imbalances
Def of Mast Cell Stabilizers/ Cromolyn/Intal
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory. Prevent release of bronchoconstrictive and inflammatory substances from mast cells.
MOA of Cromolyn/Intal
suppresses inflammation by stabilizing cystoplasmic membrane of mast cells, prevents release of histammine and other mediators.
IND of Cromolyn/Intal
prophylaxis of chronic asthma, excercise induced asthma, po 1x/day
AE of Mast Cell Stabilizers
well tolerated
Def of Leukotriene Modifiers
reduce effects of leukotrienes. Leukotrienes cause bronchoconstriction, inc mucus secretion and mucosal edema.
MOA of Montelukast/Singulair
leukotriene antagonist, blocks leukotriene receptors, prevents release of leukotrienes. Causing bronchodilation, decr in mucus secretion and mucosal edema.
IND of Montelukast/Singulair
maintenance therapy for asthma, po 1x/day
AE of Montelukast/Singulair
well tolerated
Meds for allergic Rhinitis
-Intranasal glucocorticoids
-Intranasal Mast Cell Stabilizers
MOA of Anti-histamines: histamine antagonist
block action of histamine, compete with histamine for receptor sites.
H1 receptors: mediate smooth muscle contraction, dilation of capillaries.
H2 receptors: mediate gastric secretion.
IND of Anti-histamines
-allergic rhinitis
AE of Anti-histamines
-sedation: 1st gen only
-anticholinergic effects (more with 1st than 2nd gen)
DI of Anti-histamines
-any CNS depressant/alcohol
MOA of Intranasal Glucocorticoids
dec inflammation in nasal passage, take at regular schedule during allergy season. Delivered in meter dose spray, 1 spray/nostril, 1-2x/day
Types of Intranasal Glucocorticoids
AE of intranasal glucocorticosteroids
-drying of nasal mucosa
-burning, itching in nose
-sore throat
MOA of Cromolyn/Nasalcrom
suppresses release of mediators from mast cells, used prophylactically, administered on regular schedule via metered dose spray, 1 spray/nostril, 4-6x/day
Sympathomimetics definition
decongestants: reduce nasal congestion
MOA of Sympathomimetics
activate alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in nasal blood vessels-->vasoncontriction, shrinkage of swollen membranes, and nasal drainage.
IND of Sympathomimetics
-allergic rhinitis
AE of Sympathomimetics
spray: rebound congestion
po : CNS stimulation
CV effects
potential for abuse
List all meds for cough
1. Antitussives: supress cough
a. Opiod: codeine and hydrocodone
b. Non-opiod: Dextromethorphan
2. Expectorants: Robitussin
3. Mucolytics: Mucomyst.
Antitussives MOA
Act in CNS to elevate cough threshold, dec freq, intensity of cough.
Antitussives AE
Opiod: codeine and hydrocodone
-respiratory deppression
-potential for abuse
Non-opiod Dextromethorphan/Tessalon
-minimal effects, dizziness, sedation
Non-opiod Dextromethorphan MOA
active ingredient in most non-precript cough meds. Same as opiod, acts in the CNS to elevate cough threshold.
Non-opiod Dextromethorphan AE
minimal effects
Non-opiod benzonate/Tessalon MOA
dec sensitivty of stretch receptors in respiratory tract.
Non-opiod benzonate/Tessalon AE
dizziness, sedation