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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

functions of the respiratory system

gas exchangel provide o2 eliminate co2. short term regulation of the ph of blood.

non respiratory functions of the respiratory system

defence against microbes
phonation (forming sounds)
trapping and dissolving of blood clots
ventilation of the airways contributes to body heat and body water loss

upper airway made of

nasal cavity, nostril, mouth pharynx and larynx

lower airway made of

trachea, lung, bronchi and diaphragm

airway branching how many divisions to the level of the alveoli


conducting zone composition

trachea, bronchi, brionchioles and terminal bronchioles.

respiratory zone composition

respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs

steps of respiration

1) ventilation: exchange of air between atmosphere and alveoli by BULK FLOW
2) exchange of O2 and CO2 between alveolar and blood in lung capillareis by DIFFUSION
3)transport of O2 and CO2 through pulmonary and systemic circulation by BULK FLOW
4) exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood in tissue capillaries and cells in tissues by DIFFUSION
5) cellular utilization of O2 and production of CO2

5 pieces of body for breathing

wall of thorax, ribs, spinal column, the sternum and intercostal muscles

thorax (composition)

closed compartment
sealed at the neck

seperated from the abdomen by dome shaped diaphragm

contains lowar part of trachea and two lungs

pleural sac (composition)

parietal pleura = lining of the chest wall
visceral pleura = surface of the lung

parietal and visceral pleura are separated by what?

the pleural space (which is full of intrapleural fluid)

lungs elastic recoil in or out?


chest wall recoil in or out?


is the intrapleural pressure positive or negative

negative. relative to atmospheric pressure. suction.

what does intrapleural pressure facilitate

when the chest expands the lungs expand with it

alveolar pressure definition

pressure within the alveoli relative to the atmospheric pressure

transpulmonary pressure definition

is the pressure difference between the alveoli and the pleural cavity (force acting to expand the lungs)

intrapleural pressure amount


transpulmonary pressure eq

ptp = palv - pip

tidal volume (value and definition)


amount of air inhaled or exhale in on breath during relaxed quiet breathing

inspiratory reserve volume (value and definition)

in excess of tidal breath that can be inhaled with max effort

expiratory reserve volume (value and definition)

in excess of tidal breath can be exhaled with max effort

residual volume (value and definition)


amount of air remaining in lungs after max expiration

vital capacity value and def

max exh after max inhal. used to asses strength of thoracic muscle

inspiratory capacity value and def


maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after tidal expiration

functional residual capacity value and def

amount of air remaining in lungs after a normal tidal exp

total lung capacity value and def

max amount of air the lungs can contain

minute ventilation eq

=total gas flow into the lungs per minute or minute volume.
=tidal volume x frequency of breaths per min

dead space volume


alveolar volume eq

tidal volume - dead space volume

dead space ventilation

dead space x freq of breathing

physiological dead space eq

anatomical dead space + alveolar dead space

what has to happen for lung expansion to occur

transpulmonary pressure = palv - pip (more suction)
have to have a certain ptp to fill lungs

lung compliance def

the degree to which the lung will distend for a given change in transpulmonary pressure

compliance eq


what disease has high compliance


what disease has low compliance

pulmonary fibrosis

2 determinants of lung compliance

elastic elements in the alveolar interstitium

the surface tension at the interface between air and a layer of fluid on the wall of the alveolus

what percentage of elastic recoil do elasric fibres count for


what percentage of elastic recoil does surface tension count for


what is the thing that reduces surface tension

surfactant. increases lung compliance.

which cells produce surfactant

type two alveolar cells

under what age to people no produce surfactant

35h wweek of gestation

airway flow eq

pb-palv/airway resistance

3 major determinants of airway resistance are

viscosity of air, length and diameter

where is the major site of airway resistance

bronchii (bronchioles)

why asthma makes it hard to breath

bronchial tubes tighten
blockage by mucus or by inflammation

steady state exchange fo gases

the v of o2 leaving the tissue capillaries and consumed by the cells = the v of o2 entering the pulmonary capillaries from the alveoli

conc of o2 in arterial blood

200ml/min. bc o2 transport = 1000mlmin/co = 5lmin

rq when fat, protein and carbs

0.7, 0.8 and 1

partial pressure eq

px = fractional conc x total pressure

alveolar po2 3 determining factors

po2 of inspired air, alveolar ventilation and the rate of o2 extraction from the alveoli into the blood

voluntary increased alveolar ventilation affect on co2 and o2

o2 increases bc still same amount used
co2 decreases because blown out

ficks law

P x D x (surface area/thickness of wall)