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70 Cards in this Set

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What are the functions of the respiratory system?

direct air from environment into the body and resp surfaces involved in gas exchange

a long, narrow and curled bone shelf (shaped like an elongated sea-shell) that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose.
turbinates/nasal concha
What part of the brain controls respiration?
cerebral cortex, medulla and pons
lymphoid tissue
pharyngeal tonsils
adenoids
Name the divisions of the pharynx.
nasopharynx
oropharynx (food/air)
laryngopharynx
Where are the olfactory receptors located?
superior region of nasal cavity
What is phonation and articulation
d
How many lobes does each lung have?
3 on right
2 on left
at rest breathing
500ml air per breath
tidal volume

How is carbon dioxide transported?

by hemoglobin as carbominohemoglobin, dissolved in plasma and as carbonic acid

Where is the “vital center” for control of breathing?
cerebral cortex
limbic system possibly?

includes nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinus, pharynx

upper resp tract

includes larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

lower resp tract

part of resp system that conducts air from atmosphere to lungs

conducting part

part of resp system includes structures where gas exchange occurs, includes last part of bronchioles and distal structures

respiratory part of resp system

made of hyaline cartilage, muscle, adipose tissue and skin. lined by mucous membrane. upper part made of bone, lower of cartilage


Nose

division of the nasal cavity, made of hyaline cartilage and bone, separated from nasal cavity by maxillary and palatine bones
nasal septum;

the hair here helps prevent larger particles from entering nasal cavity
nostrils;

nares;

pair of nasal cavity openings

4 paranasal sinuses;

sphenoid


maxillary


ethmoid


frontal

pharynx (3 parts);

nasopharynx


adenoids


eustachian (auditory) tubes

voice box
connects pharynx to trachea
cartilage w/ ligaments & muscles attached

larynx;

located internally in larynx close to base of tongue, shaped like shoehorn. swallow moves it posteriorly to close larynx or glottis to prevent food from going into it

epiglottis

shaped like a shield


adams apple



thyroid cartilage

ring-shaped


inferiorly attached to cartilage of trachea

cricoid

2 elastic ligaments extend between the thyroid cartilage and this feature and go across the glottis

arytenoid cartilage

windpipetube that extends from cricoid to t5 vert where it branches in two (right/left primary bronchi)

trachea;
divide repeatedly to form smaller bronchi/bronchioles. divide into 3 on right, 2 on left.
primary bronchi;

larger spaces connected to bronchioles. opens into smaller champers.

Alveolar ducts;

alveolar ducts open into these small champers

alveoli

moves air in and out of lobes of lungs

broncus

oily secretion
lubricates, reduces surface tension of liquid coating of the alveoli

surfactant,

layer lining the outside of the lungs

visceral pleura,

lines inner wall of thoracic cavity, diaphragm and mediastinum

parietal pleura,

space between parietal and visceral pleura layers

pleural cavity

double membrane (with a cavity inbetween) that surrounds lungs

pleura

Absence of automatic breathing
apnea;
Lung disorder with attacks of breathing difficulty
asthma;
nosebleed
epistaxis;
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
C.O.P.D.;
Bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membrane from lack of oxygen
cyanosis;
Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing
dyspnea;
Defect of the lung system with destructive changes of the pouches where air exchange occurs
emphysema;
Highly contagious infection usually of the lungs caused by a virus and transmitted by airborne particles
influenza;
inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the voice box with swelling of vocal cords
laryngitis;
inflammation of the lining of the chest, breathlessness and stabbing pain
pleurisy;
Inflammation of the tissues that line the lungs and chest cavity.
pleuritis;
Inflammation of the lungs commonly caused by bacteria
pneumonia;
serious long term incurable blood disease
sickle cell anemia;
fast breathing
tachypnea;

volume of air a person can maximally breathe out after maximal inspiration

vital capacity,

volume of air remaining in the lungs after expiration

residual volume

5 expiration muscles

internal intercostals


rectus abdominus


external oblique


transversus abdominus


internal oblique

8 inspiration muscles

diaphragm


external intercostals


scm


scalenes


pec major


pec minor


trap


serratus anterior

increase volume of throacic cavity/decrease abdominopelvic cavity

diaphragm

raise ribs, incr vol of thoracic cavity

external intercostals

flex neck


turn head to opp side


elevate clavical and sternum

scm

flex neck


elevate ribs

scalenes

flex, adduct, med rotate humerus, elevate ribs

pectoralis major

protracts, dpresses, lat rotates scapula, elevates ribs

pec minor

elevation, depressions, adduction, rotate scapula, elevate clavical, extension of head and neck

trapezius

protracts, abducts, med rotates scapula, elevate ribs

serratus anterior

depress ribs decreasing volume of throacic cavity

internal intercostals

flexes spine, depresses ribs

rectus abdominus and external oblique

compresses abdomen

transversus abdominus

flexes/bends spine, depresses ribs

internal oblique

How is oxygen transported?

oxygen in blood transported by hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin or is dissolved in plasma