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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the 5 qualities of science?



Theory construction

Empirical measures


What is a problem with peer review?

Publication Bias

- If the results are significant

- If its a well known researcher

What is content analysis?

Creating appropriate categories then counting each time the category occurs

Puts qualitative data into quantitative

If theres a relationship between two variables. Name the research method.


Two ways of testing reliability

Split half technique

Test re-test

Explain the Split half method for reliability

This is done by comparing the results of one half of a test with the results from the other half. A test can be split in half in several ways, e.g. first half and second half, or by odd and even numbers. If the two halves of the test provide similar results this would suggest that the test has internal reliability.

Explain the test re-test for reliability

Individuals are asked to take the test of interest and then take the same test again at a later date. The scores are then compared. The closer the scores are, the more reliable the test.

What does experimental design mean?

How the participants are used in the study:

-Repeated measures

-Matched pairs

-Independent groups

How would you analyse qualitative data from an interview?

Transcribe it then use content analysis

What does empirical mean?

Based on evidence - seen it happen

What does anecdotal evidence mean?

Based on what someone else has said

What line must standardised instructions include?

Do you understand?

What is counterbalancing? How does it work?

To combat order affects the research counter balances the order of the conditions for the participants. Alternating the order in which participants perform in different conditions of an experiment.

The sample is split in two groups experimental (A) and control (B). For example, group 1 does ‘A’ then ‘B’, group 2 does ‘B’ then ‘A’ this is to eliminate order effects. Order effects balanced out as they occur equallythey balance each other out in the results.

Two ways of assessing validity of a questionnaire

Concurrent validity

Face validity

What is concurrent validity?

This is the degree to which a test corresponds to an external criterion that is known concurrently (i.e. occurring at the same time). If the new test is validated by a comparison with a currently existing criterion, we have concurrent validity. Very often, a new IQ or personality test might be compared with an older but similar test known to have good validity already.

What is face validity?

Face validity is simply whether the test appears (at face value) to measure what it claims to.

A direct measurement of face validity is obtained by asking people to rate the validity of a test as it appears to them. This rater could use a likert scale to assess face validity.

What is a type 2 error?

When the null hypothesis is retained but shouldn't be (saying the results aren't significant when they are)

What is a type 1 error?

When the null hypothesis is rejected and it shouldn't be (saying the results are significant when they aren't)

What phrase should be used at the end of a null hypothesis for an experiment?

Any differences are due to chance factors

What phrase should be used at the end of a null hypothesis for a correlation?

Any relationship is due to chance factors

Why may a random sample not be representative?

If by chance the people who are picked aren't a representative sample of the population, could be majority a certain type of people

How can you minimise the role of participant variables if independent groups are used?

Random allocation to conditions

How is new knowledge validated in psychology?

Peer review

Name 5 ethical issues


Right to withdraw

Informed consent

Protection from harm

Privacy and confidentiality

How can you tell the probability of making a type 1 error?

The significance level

How would you gain quantitative data from carrying out an observation?

Content analysis and creating categories then counting when they occur

The end result of an inferential test is the probability value. What does this value refer to?

The probability the null hypothesis is true

If the hypothesis isn't socially sensitive what should the alpha level be?

0.05 or 5%

If they hypothesis is socially sensitive, what should the alpha level be?

0.01 or 1%

If the data is nominal, what type of graph should be used?

Bar graph

If the data is interval, what graph should be used?

Histogram or frequency polygon

Report section 1 - ABSTRACT

A summary of the research and the reader can judge if they want to read it

Report section 2 - INTRODUCTION

Theoretical background and other peoples research into it. The justification of your aims and stating the hypothesis

Report section 3 - METHOD

Sample technique, how it was done.

Needs to be able to be replicated, thats the purpose of the method section

Report section 4 - RESULTS

Summary of the data

Report section 5 - DISCUSSION

What the results mean, problems with the research and where the research should go next

Report section 6 - REFERENCES

Psychologists work (from the introduction) and tells you what the research is and where to find it

Chi Square


Nominal data

Independent groups

Wilcoxon T

Ordinal Data


Matched Pairs or Repeated measures

Man Whitney U


Ordinal data

Independent groups

Spearman's Rho


Ordinal Data

(No experimental design for correlation)