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41 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
What are the 5 qualities of science? 
Objectivity Hypotheses Theory construction Empirical measures Replicability 

What is a problem with peer review? 
Publication Bias  If the results are significant  If its a well known researcher 

What is content analysis? 
Creating appropriate categories then counting each time the category occurs Puts qualitative data into quantitative 

If theres a relationship between two variables. Name the research method. 
Correlation 

Two ways of testing reliability 
Split half technique Test retest 

Explain the Split half method for reliability 
This is done by comparing the results of one half of a test with the results from the other half. A test can be split in half in several ways, e.g. first half and second half, or by odd and even numbers. If the two halves of the test provide similar results this would suggest that the test has internal reliability. 

Explain the test retest for reliability 
Individuals are asked to take the test of interest and then take the same test again at a later date. The scores are then compared. The closer the scores are, the more reliable the test. 

What does experimental design mean? 
How the participants are used in the study: Repeated measures Matched pairs Independent groups 

How would you analyse qualitative data from an interview? 
Transcribe it then use content analysis 

What does empirical mean? 
Based on evidence  seen it happen 

What does anecdotal evidence mean? 
Based on what someone else has said 

What line must standardised instructions include? 
Do you understand? 

What is counterbalancing? How does it work? 
To combat order affects the research counter balances the order of the conditions for the participants. Alternating the order in which participants perform in different conditions of an experiment. The sample is split in two groups experimental (A) and control (B). For example, group 1 does ‘A’ then ‘B’, group 2 does ‘B’ then ‘A’ this is to eliminate order effects. Order effects balanced out as they occur equallythey balance each other out in the results. 

Two ways of assessing validity of a questionnaire 
Concurrent validity Face validity 

What is concurrent validity? 
This is the degree to which a test corresponds to an external criterion that is known concurrently (i.e. occurring at the same time). If the new test is validated by a comparison with a currently existing criterion, we have concurrent validity. Very often, a new IQ or personality test might be compared with an older but similar test known to have good validity already. 

What is face validity? 
Face validity is simply whether the test appears (at face value) to measure what it claims to. A direct measurement of face validity is obtained by asking people to rate the validity of a test as it appears to them. This rater could use a likert scale to assess face validity. 

What is a type 2 error? 
When the null hypothesis is retained but shouldn't be (saying the results aren't significant when they are) 

What is a type 1 error? 
When the null hypothesis is rejected and it shouldn't be (saying the results are significant when they aren't) 

What phrase should be used at the end of a null hypothesis for an experiment? 
Any differences are due to chance factors 

What phrase should be used at the end of a null hypothesis for a correlation? 
Any relationship is due to chance factors 

Why may a random sample not be representative? 
If by chance the people who are picked aren't a representative sample of the population, could be majority a certain type of people 

How can you minimise the role of participant variables if independent groups are used? 
Random allocation to conditions 

How is new knowledge validated in psychology? 
Peer review 

Name 5 ethical issues 
Deception Right to withdraw Informed consent Protection from harm Privacy and confidentiality 

How can you tell the probability of making a type 1 error? 
The significance level 

How would you gain quantitative data from carrying out an observation? 
Content analysis and creating categories then counting when they occur 

The end result of an inferential test is the probability value. What does this value refer to? 
The probability the null hypothesis is true 

If the hypothesis isn't socially sensitive what should the alpha level be? 
0.05 or 5% 

If they hypothesis is socially sensitive, what should the alpha level be? 
0.01 or 1% 

If the data is nominal, what type of graph should be used? 
Bar graph 

If the data is interval, what graph should be used? 
Histogram or frequency polygon 

Report section 1  ABSTRACT 
A summary of the research and the reader can judge if they want to read it 

Report section 2  INTRODUCTION 
Theoretical background and other peoples research into it. The justification of your aims and stating the hypothesis 

Report section 3  METHOD 
Sample technique, how it was done. Needs to be able to be replicated, thats the purpose of the method section 

Report section 4  RESULTS 
Summary of the data 

Report section 5  DISCUSSION 
What the results mean, problems with the research and where the research should go next 

Report section 6  REFERENCES 
Psychologists work (from the introduction) and tells you what the research is and where to find it 

Chi Square

Difference Nominal data Independent groups 

Wilcoxon T

Ordinal Data Difference Matched Pairs or Repeated measures 

Man Whitney U

Difference Ordinal data Independent groups 

Spearman's Rho

Correlation Ordinal Data (No experimental design for correlation) 