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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The positivist view prefers qualitative/quantitative data?

Quantitative. Positivists are all about rock solid cock evidence.

The constructivist view...

Is one that believes that people don't see the world for what it is, but rather each individual produces a set of heuristics and ideas that help them understand the world based on their past experiences.

Grounded theory is? (Point of saturation is?)

Grounded theory is when you put participants through an experience of some sort, and then have them talk at you about how it felt and what they experienced. You then "analyze" this "data" and such.

The point of saturation is when you aren't getting any new info from the new people you interview.

Content analysis

A way of breaking down and analyzing the statements given in the interview

Member checking is...

The privilege that participants get to review all transcripts from the interview and make sure they agree with it. They have the right to pull anything from the interview that they want.

Photo voice is...

Letting participants use photos as a sort of voice. Instead of talking about how they feel, they take photos that make them feel that way.

Describe research using an observational methodology

Research using observational methodology has the researcher (hidden, unintrusive) observing a group (say a group at a bar). The researcher notes qualitative data about the group. There is no independent variable being manipulated, as the researcher is just observing a naturally occurring behavior.

Naturalistic/unobstrusive/nonreactive observation is

When the researcher finds it's too hard to completely conceal themselves, they instead just become a natural part of the setting, making sure to minimize measurement reactivity.

Researchers in a naturalistic observation try to minimize ____________

measurement reactivity

Disguised Participant observation

The researcher somehow gains access into a group. Nobody knows he's the researcher, and measurement reactivity is low!

Undisguised participant observation

The researcher immediately identifies themselves as a researcher.

What's a "blind observer"

A blind observer is an observer who has no inclination on how the observation is "supposed" to play out. They just report what they see. This cuts down on observer bias heavily.

Interrater reliability is? How is it figured out? Why do we have it?

Interrater reliability is the consistency of report between two observers. You calculate is using a correlation coefficient. (You want it to be .9 or higher)

Diary based design

Involves a participant writing stuff in a diary.

Experience sampling/ecological momentary assessments

It's when participants sample their experiences from moment to moment using like a palm pilot. They are told to report at random intervals when the thing beeps and also when they experience the pre determined stimulus.

Informed consent is/is not needed in naturalistic and disguised participant observation? Why?

It isn't. This is because both forms of observation take place in public places where the behavior would occur anyways.

Nomothetic research is....

When you take an average of a group to use as data. (You obscure the individual results.)

Single-participant design is? It was used because?

It's the idea of putting ONE participant through an experiment.

It was done because we didn't have the statistical tech to produce the rule and stuff for a group.

Idiographic means

You're more concerned with the difference from person to person.
The behavioural baseline is

A period where the independent variable is not being applied (how a participant acts normally)

What's an AB design and how is it's internal validity?

An AB design involves finding a behavioural baseline (A) and then after some time, introducing the independent variable (B). This is a very LOW internal validity, because we can't attribute any changes in behavior to B, but rather to both B and time. We don't really know

What's an ABA design and how is it's internal validity

An ABA design involves finding the baseline (A), introducing the independent variable (B), and then letting the participant fall back to the baseline (A). If the effects go away, we know that time is not the factor, but rather the treatment itself!

A multiple baseline procedure is...

One that finds the baseline, adjusts it with a variable, and then comes back to it (any number of times)


Multiple baseline across participants is...

Having a structure (lets say, AB). You get 3 participants, have them all at A, and then introduce the independent variable to each of them, but one at a time. Once participant 1 has been stabilized on B, participant 2 starts, etc. You check how each participant reacts to the introduction of the independent variable to check for interparticipant replication.

Multiple baselines across behaviours is..

Having ONE participant and measuring 3 behaviours.

You are essentially building an AB for each behaviour, and introducing B to behaviour 1, then AFTER IT STABILIZES, behaviour 2, and then 3. This can show how independent the behaviours are.

Multiple baselines across situations

One participant, one behaviour. You measure the baseline and then put it into different situations.