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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Maintains that ethics must be judged in light of a universal moral code.
Asserts that concrete and inviolate moral codes such as those proclaimed by the deontologist cannot be formulated.
Ethical Skepticism
Maintains that judgements regarding the ethics of a particular action depend on the consequences of that action
Sets for ethical standards that psychologists must follow
APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists Code of Conduct
Weighing the pro's and cons of a study
Cost-Benefit Analysis
5 benefits of behavioral research
basic knowledge, improvement of research techniques, practial outcomes, benefits for researchers, benefits for participants.
U.S. Government ordered that all research involving human participants must be reviewed by a
Institutional Review Board
6 issues of IRB's
lack of informed consent, invasion of privacy, coercion to participate, potential physical harm/mental harm, deception and violation of confidentiality.
Informing research participants of the nature of the study and obtaining their explicit agreement to participate.
Informed Consent
Problems w/ getting consent
Would compromise the validity, part's who are unable to give informed consent, ludicrous cases of informed consent
Observing people in public places does not constitute:
Invasion of Privacy.
Occurs when participants agree to participate because of real or implied pressure
Coercion to Participate.
Risk that is no greater in probability and severity than that ordinarily encountered in daily life or during the performince of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests
Minimal Risk
What evokes the most controversy in research?
Informing participants about deception after the study
The data that participants provide may be used only for purposes of the research
Most scientific organizations have set ethical standards for their members to guard against....
Scientific Misconduct
Well-designed experiment has 3 properties
1) vary at least one variable
2) paricipants must be initially equivalent
3) must control extraneous variables
What variable is manipulated
Independent Variable
An independent variable must have 2 or more...
Researchers sometimes refer to different levels as:
Involve experimental modifications of the participants physical or social environment.
Environmental Manipulations
Vary the independent variable through verbal instructions.
Instructional Manipulations
Create physical changes in the participant through surgery or drugs.
Invasive Manipulations
Recieve zero level of the independent variable
Control Group
Trying out levels of the independent variables before actually starting the experiment.
Pilot Test
A question that is designed to determine whether the independent variable was manipulated successfully
Manipulation Check
Type of variable that is not manipulated by the experimenter. Reflect existing characteristics of the participants.
Subject Variables.
The response being measured in the study
Dependent Variable
Involves placing participants in conditions in such a way that every participant has an equal probablitiy of being placed in any experimental condition
Simple Random Assignment
The researcher obtains participants scores on a measure known to be relevant to the outcome of the experiment and places them accordingly.
Matched Random Assignment.
Symbol for number of conditions in study.
When different participants are assigned to each of the conditions in an experiment as in simple and matched random assignment the design is called
Randomized Study Design
Used when an experimenter is interested in differences in behavior across conditions within a single group of participants
Within-subjects design.
Another name for within subjects design, so named because each participant is measured more than once.
Repeated Measures Design.
The term for a research design's ability to detect effects of the independent variable.
Behavior effected by the order in which they participate
Order Effects
Occur when the participants performance improves merely because they complete the dependent variable many times
Practice Effect
Occur if participants become tired or less enthused as the experiment progresses
Fatigue Effect
After receiving several levels of the ind. variable participants may begin to realize what the hypothesis is.
Occur when the effect of a particular treatment condition persists even after the condition ends.
Carry-over effect.
Involves presenting the levels of the independent variable in different orders to different participants. Guards against carryover.
Eliminating or holding constant extraneous factors that might affect the outcome of the study
Experimental Control
The portion of variance of participants scores due to independent variable.
Treatment variance.
When a variable other than the independent variable differs between the groups, this is produced.
Confound Variance.
The result of unsystematic differences among participants
Error Variance
The degree to which a researcher draws accurate conclusions about the effects of the independent variable.
Internal Validity
Introduces the possibility that the effects are due to nonequivalent groups rather than to the independent variable.
Biased selection.
Loss of participants during a study
When the rate of attrition differs across experimental conditions
Differential Attrition
When taking a pretest, this might sensitize participants to the ind. variable so they react differently.
Pretest sensitization
Obtained effects are not due to the ind. variable itself but to an interaction of the ind. variable and ________
History Effects.
Age related changes.
Experimenters expectations can distort the results by affecting how they interperet behavior
Experimenter Expectancy Effect.
Aspects of the study that indicate to participants how they should behave.
Demand Characteristics.
When experimenter and participants don't know what their experimental condition is.
Double blind procedure.
A physiological or psych. effect that occurs at the mere suggestion that the change will occur.
Placebo effect.
The degree to which the results obtained in one study can be replicated or generalized to other samples, research settings, and procedures
External Validity.
The conflict between external and internal validity
Experimenter's Dillema
The second page of the manuscript. A brief summary of the content of the paper.
Most journals that publish behavioral research conform to this kind of style.
APA Style.
This style used in APA lists other's work by inserting the last name of the author and they year of publication.
Author-Date System
In the 1970's the APA adopted this to eliminate sexism and ambiguity
Gender-neutral language.
One method of giving a talk to an audience. Papers on related talks are given in a _________.
Paper Session
When a paper is evaluated by other scientists who have expertise in the topic under investigation.
Peer Review.
Researchers display summaries of their research on poster boards, providing essential details of its background, methodology, results and implications
Poster Session
When researchers write about their research before rather than after it was conducted.
Research Proposal.