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104 Cards in this Set
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4 General Types of psychological measures:

1) observational
2) physiological 3) selfreport 4) archival 

Direct observation of human or nonhuman behavior

Observational Methods


Researchers must make what 3 decisions regarding observation of participants' behavior

1) natural or contrived
2) Will participants know? 3) How will participants be recorded? 

Involves the observation of ongoing behavior as it occurs naturally with no intrusion or intervention by the researcher.

Naturalistic Observation


Type of observation used in riots, mobs, littering, nonverbal events, parentchild interaction on playground

Naturalistic Observation


In this type of naturalistic observation, the researcher engages in the same activities as the people he or she is observing

Participant Observation


Involves the observation of behavior in settings that are arranged specifically for observing and recording behavior.

Contrived Observation.


When individuals who are being studied know that the researcher is observing their behavior.

Undisguised Observation


When participants do not respond naturally as they know they are being observed

Reactivity


Researchers conceal the fact that they are observing participants' behavior

Disguised Observation


Researchers sometimes recruit _____________, people who know the subject well to observe and rate their behavior.

Knowledgable Informants


These measures can be taken without the participants knowing they are being studied.

Unobtrusive Measures


4 types of behavioral recording

1) narratives
2) Checklists 3) Temporal Measures 4) Observational Rating Scale 

A full description of a participants behavior (rarely used in psychological research)

Narratives (narrative records)


Include a summary description of the participants behavior w/ no attempt to record every behavior.

Field Notes


The simplest structured observation is a ______________, on which the researcher records, times, or rates behavior on dimensions that have been decided upon in advance.

Checklists (or tally sheet)


How much times elapsed between two behaviors

Latency


The time that elapses between the presentation of a stimulus and the participant's response.

Reaction Time


The length of time it takes participants to solve a problem or complete a task.

Task completion time.


The time that elapses between the performance of two behaviors.

Interbehavior Latency.


How long a behavior lasted

Duration


Measures the quality or intensity of a behavior.

Observational Rating Scale.


2 ways to increase reliability of observational methods

1) Clear, precise operations definitions
2) Raters should practice using the coding system, comparing and discussing the ratings with each other. 

A broad, interdisciplinary field that studies biochemical, anatomical, physiological, genetic, and developmental processes involving the nervous system.

Neuroscience


Psychophysiological and neuroscientific measures can be classified into 5 general types:

measures of neural activity, neuroimaging, measures of autonomic nervous system activity, blood and saliva assays, and precise measurement of overt reactions.


Examples of neural electrical activity are:

EEG, EMG


Allows researchers to see activity occurring within the brain

Neuroimaging (fMRI)


Are measures of the autonomic nervous system:

HR, RR, BP, Skin Temp, and electrodermal response.


Hormones such as adrenalin and cortisol can be measured through:

Blood and Saliva Assays.


Participants respond to written questions or statements

Questionnaires.


An interviewer asks a question and the participant responds.

Interview.


Refers to the manner in which the participant indicates his or her answer to the question.

Response format


3 basic response formats:

1) Free response
2) Rating Scale 3) Fixed Alternative 

Type of scale in which consists of an adjective and its opposite.

Bipolar Adjective Scale.


True/False response format is an example of a:

Fixed Response Format.


The most ubiquitous of all psychological measures.

Questionnaires


Participants record their information as they occur in daily life.

Experience Sampling Methods (ESM)


Participants were given a stack of identical questionnaires to do everyday.

Diary Methodology.


Using handheld computers or devices that ask participants questions about their experiences.

Computerized Experience Sampling Methods.


Series of questions used in an interview

Interview schedule.


People are hesitant to admit certain behaviors which lowers validity.

Social Desirability Response.


Agreeing with a statement regardless of the content

Acquiescence.


Disagree with a statement regardless of the content

NaySaying.


The purpose of ____________ is to describe the characteristics or behaviors of a given population in a systematic and accurate fashion.

Descriptive Research


What are the 3 types of descriptive research?

1)Survey
2) Demographic 3) Epidemiological 

Most common type of descriptive research.

Surveys.


Study in which a single group of respondents is surveyed.

Crosssectional survey design.


Two or more sample of respondents answer the same questions at different points in time.

Successive Independent Samples Survey Design.


A single group of respondents is questioned more than once.

Longitudinal or Panel Survey Design


This type of survey has advantages: cost an don't require interview team. Disadvantages: little control over sample, certain people likely to respond.

Internet Surveys.


Concerned with describing patterns of basic life events and experiences such as birth, marriage, divorce, employment, migration and death.

Demographic Research


Used to study the occurence of disease in different groups of people.

Epidemiological Research


The process by which a researcher selects a sample of participants for a study from the population of interest.

Sampling.


Sample from which we can draw accurate, unbiased estimates of the characteristics of the larger population.

Representative Sample.


Causes results obtained from the sample to differ from what would have been obtained had the entire population been studied.

Sampling Error.


This indicates the degree to which the data obtained from the sample are expected to deviate from the population as a whole

Error of Estimation (or Margin of Error)


The error of estimation is a function of what 3 things?:

1) Sample Size
2) Population Size 3)Variance of the Data 

A sample which provides a reasonably accurate estimate of the population at a reasonable effort and cost.

Economic Sample


A sample for which the researcher knows the mathematical probability that any individual in the population is included in the sample

Probability Sample


Sample which specifies all cases in the population have an equal probabliity of being chosen for the sample

Epsem Sample


What does epsem stand for?

Equal Probablitity Selection Method


When a sample is chosen in such a way that every possible sample of the desired size has the same chance of being selected from the population

Simple Random Sample


A list of the population from which the sample will be drawn

Sampling Frame


A variation of simple random sampling. Rather than selecting cases directly from the population, we first divide the population into two or more strata.

Stratified Random Sampling.


Cases are sampled from each stratum in poroportion to their prevalence in the population.

Proportionate Sampling Method.


Procedure in which at first the researcher samples not participants but rather groupings or clusters of participants.

Cluster Samplings.


Begin by sampling large clusters, then we sample smaller clusters from within he large clusters, then we sample smaller clusters and finally obtain our sample of participants

Multistage Sampling


The failure to obtain responses from individuals that researchers select for their sample.

Nonresponse Problem.


Researchers have no way of knowing the probability that a particular case will be chosen for a sample.

Non probability sample.


When researchers use whatever participants are readily available

Convenience Sampling


A convenience sample in which the researcher takes steps to ensure that certain kinds of participants are obtained in particular proportions.

Quota Sample


Researchers use their judgement to decide which participants to include in the sample, trying to choose respondents who are typical of the population

Purposive Sample


To be useful, descriptions of data should meet three criteria:

1) Accuracy
2) Conciseness 3) Understandability 

All participants scores on all data

Raw Data


A table that summarizes raw data by showing the number of scores that fall within each of several categories

Frequency Distribution


Indicates the number of participants who obtained each score.

Simple Frequency Distribution


Shows the frequency of a subset of scores

Grouped Frequency Distribution


The proportion of the total number of scores that falls in each class interval

Relative Frequency


Frequency distributions are often protrayed graphically in the form of __________ and __________.

Histograms and Bar Graphs.


When the axes on the graph are labled just as they are for the histogram, but rather than using bar, lines are drawn to connect the frequencies of the class intervals.

Frequency Polygon


Convey info about a distrubution by providing information about the average or most typical score.

Measures of Central Tendency


Descriptive statistics that convey information about the spread or variability of a set of data.

Measures of Variability.


Rises to a round peak at its center, then tapers off at both tails.

Normal Distribution


More low scores than high.

Positively skewed data


More high scores than low

Negatively skewed data.


Used to describe a participant's score relative to the rest of the data

zscore


Recording of information about their thoughts, emotions or behaviors as they occur in everyday life.

Experience Sampling Methods (ESM)


Used to describe the relationship between two or more naturally occurring variables.

Correlational Research


A statistic that indicates the degree to which two variables are related to one another in a linear fashion.

Correlation Coefficient.


Designated by the letter r, this is the most common correlation coefficient.

Pearson Correlation Coefficient.


Indicates a pos. or direct correlation between variables.

Positive Correlation


Inverse, negative relationship between variables.

Negative Correlation


Scores for an entire sample are plotted.

Scatter Plot


1.00 or +1.00

Perfect Correlation


If you square r, you get the ____________?

Coefficient of Determination.


Exists when a correlation coefficient calculated on a sample has a very low probability of being zero in the population.

Statistical Significance.


Narrow range of data which can lead researchers to misinterpret data.

Restricted Range.


Scores that are so obviously deviant from the remainder of the data that one can question whether they belong in the data set at all.

Outliers.


Correlation does not imply ____________?

Causulty.


3 criteria to implicate causation:

1) Covariation
2) Directionality 3) Elimination of extraneous factors. 

The correlation between two variables with the influence with the influence of one or more other variables statistically removed.

Partial Correlation.


When one or both variables are measured on the ordinal scale, this coefficient is used.

the Spearman rankorder correlation.


This is used when both variables being correlated are dichotomous.

Phi Coefficient.


If only one variable is dichotomous (and the other is on an interval or ratio scale), this is used.

Point Biserial Correlation
