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### 71 Cards in this Set

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 What is the most commonly used method of selecting a probablity sample? Simple random sampling(SRS) How many ways are there of selecting a random sample? What are they? Two ways. * sampling w/o replacement *sampling with replacement What is the basic definition of randomisation? Each element has an equal and independent chance of selection. How many commonly used types of random sampling design are there? There are three: Simple random sampling (SRS); Stratified random sampling; Cluster sampling. Name the methods used for the procedure of slecting a simple random sample. Fishbowl draw; table of random numbers; or a computer program. You can achieve greater accuracy in your [Stratified random sampling] estimate if... the heterogeneity in the population can be reduced. It is important that the characteristics chosen as the basis of stratification are __________ in the study population. clearly identifiable How many types of stratified sampling are there? Two: * proportionate; and * disproportionate This method does not take the size of the stratum into consideration in the selection of the sample. Disproportionate Stratified Sampling As the sample selected is in proportion to the size of each stratum in the population, this method is called ______________. Proportionate Stratified Sampling Simple random and stratified sampling techniques are based on a researcher's ability to... identify each element in a population. When the population is large, and it becomes difficult and expensive to identify each sampling unit, the use of ________ sampling is more appropriate. cluster _______ sampling is based on the ability of the researcher to divide the sampling population into groups, and then to select elements within each group, using the ________ techinque. Cluster. SRS. Clusters can be formed on the basis of ________ or a _______ that has a correlation with the main variable of study (as in stratified sampling). geographical proximity common characteristic What are the different stages of clustering? single, double, or multi __________ sampling designs are used when the number of elements in a population is either unknown or cannot be individually identified. Non-probability How many non-random/probability designs (aka non-random designs) are there? What are they? Four - * quota sampling * accidental sampling * judgemental or purpose sampling; and * snowball sampling Where are non-random/probablity designs commonly used? Qualitative and quantitative research. What is the main consideration directing quota sampling? The researcher's ease of access to the sample population. A researcher looking for convenience (e.g.,as in location), and specific visual characteristics would most likely use which sampling method? Quota What are the advantages of Quota Sampling? It is the least expensive way of selecting a sample; you do not need any information, such as sampling frame, the total number of elements, their location, or other information about the sampling population; and it guarantees the inclusion of the type of people you need. What are the disadvantages of Quota Sampling? 1) As the resulting sample is not a probability one, the findings cannot be generalized to the total sampling population; and 2) The most accessible individuals might have characteristics that are unique to them and hence might not be truly representative of the total sampling population. Which sampling method attempts to include people possessing an obvious/visible characteristic? Quota Sampling Which sampling method guarantees the inclusion of the type of people that you need? Quota Sampling Which type of sampling is common among market research and newspaper reporters? Accidental Sampling Like quota sampling, _______ sampling is also based upon convenience in accessing the sampling population. accidental Accidental sampling makes no attempt to include... people possessing an obvious/visible characteristic. Which sampling method has more or less the same advantages and disadvantages as quota sampling? Accidental Sampling In accidental sampling, you are not guided by... any obvious characteristics. Since you are not guided by any obvious characteristics in accidental sampling, some people contacted may... not have the required information. In this type of sampling, the researcher only goes to those people who in her/his opinion are likely to have the required information and be willing to share it. Judgemental or Purposive Sampling The primary consideration in purposive sampling is the ______ of the researcher as to who can provide the best information to achieve the objectives of the study. judgment This type of sampling is extremely useful when you want to construct a historical reality, describe a phenomenon or develop something about which only a little is known. Judgemental or Purposive Sampling ______ sampling is the process of selecting a sample using networks. Snowball This sampling technique is useful if you know little about the group or organization you wish to study, as you only need to make contact with a few individuals, who can then direct you to the other members of the group. Snowball Sampling This method of selecting a sample is useful for studying communication patterns, decision making or diffusion of knowledge within a group. Snowball Sampling A drawback of this sampling technique is that the choice of the entire sample rests upon the choice of individuals at the first stage. Snowball Sampling It is difficult to use this technique when the sample becomes fairly large. Snowball Sampling The study in this sampling technique may become biased if the choice of individuals to be sampled belong to a particular faction or have strong biases. Snowball Sampling This sampling design has been classified under the 'mixed sampling' category because it has the characteristics of both ______ and ______ sampling designs. Systematic. random and non-random In this sampling design, the sampling frame is first divided into a number of segments, called intervals. Systematic/'mixed' sampling design. The selection of subsequent elements from other intervals is dependent upon the order of the elements selected in the first interval. Which sampling design is this? Systematic/'mixed' sampling design To select a random sample one must have a ________. sampling frame True or False: Sometimes it is impossible to have a sampling frame, or obtaining one becomes too expensive. True When using the systematic sampling technique, the first step is to... determine the width of the interval. Your _________ is the main determinant of the level of accuracy required in the results. purpose in undertaking research In practice, what determines the size of your sample? Your budget. Sampling, in a way, is a trade-off between ____ and ____. accuracy and resources Through sampling you _______ about the information of interest. make an estimate True or False: Through sampling, you don't find the true population mean? True Sampling is guided by how many principles? Three Sampling designs can be classified as _______, _______, and _______. random/proability sampling designs, nonrandom/probability sampling designs, and 'mixed' sampling designs. For a sample to be called a random sample, each element in the study population must have... an equal and independent chance of selection. What three random designs were discussed in Kumar's book? Simple Random Sampling Stratified Random Sampling Cluster Sampling What are three commonly used methods of selecting a probability sample? Fishbowl Technique Table of Random Numbers Specifically Designed Computer Programs Systematic sampling is classified under the _____ category. 'mixed' Systematic sampling has the properties of both ______ and ______ sampling designs. Because of this, it is classified under the ____ category. proability and non-probability. 'mixed' It is the least expensive way of selecting a sample. Quota In this sampling method, you do not need any information such as sampling frame, the total number of elements, their location, or other information about the sampling population. Quota Qualitative and quantitative research are commonly used by _______ designs. non-random Snowball sampling is not very effective with _____ samples. large A researcher applying Judgemental/Purposive sampling uses people who... are likely to have the required information and are willing to share. Sampling with replacement and sampling w/o replacement are two ways of... selecting a random sample. Random, non-random, and mixed are three ways... sampling designs can be classified. Geographical proximity and common characteristics are two properties usually applied to ________ sampling. cluster By reducing _______, you can achieve greater accuracy in your stratified random sample estimate. heterogeneity Non-probability sampling designs are used when... the number of elements in a population is either unknown or cannot be individually identified. Accidental sampling is commonly used by... market research and newspaper reporters. Quota sampling is great when you want to guarantee the inclusion of... the type of people that you need. Which sampling method would make no effort to include people possessing an obvious/visible characteristic? Accidental Fishbowl technique, Table of Random Numbers, and specifically designed Computer Programs are used to... select a probability sample.