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25 Cards in this Set

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Four Major Research Approaches in Educational Research

* Quantitative research
* Qualitative research
* Mixed research
* Action research

Quantitative Methods

Confirmatory or “top-down”—the researcher tests hypotheses and theory with data.

Qualitative Methods

Exploratory or “bottom-up”—the researcher generates or constructs knowledge, hypotheses, and grounded theory from data collected during fieldwork.

Mixed Methods

Confirmatory and exploratory according to given situation.

Action Methods

Identify and solve pressing issues within the educational environment and community using quantitative, qualitative, or both approaches.

Quantitative Research

Quantitative/ numerical description, causal explanation, and prediction.

Qualitative Research

Qualitative/subjective description, empathetic understanding, and exploration.

Mixed Methods Research

Multiple objectives; provide complex and fuller explanation and understanding; understand multiple perspectives.

Action Research

Identify and solve pressing issues within the educational environment and community using quantitative, qualitative, or both approaches.

Quantitative Observation

Study behavior under controlled conditions; isolate the causal effect of single variables.

Qualitative Observation

Study groups and individuals in natural settings; attempt to understand insiders’ views, meanings, and perspectives.

Mixed Methods Observation

Study multiple contexts, perspectives, or conditions; study multiple factors as they operate together.

Action Observation

Study behaviors and people in real-world settings before, during, and after the implementation of specific intervention action.

Quantitative Data & Collection

Collect quantitative data & variables based on precise measurement using structured and validated data-collection instruments.

Qualitative Data & Collection

Collect qualitative data (words, images, categories) such as in-depth interviews, participant observations, field notes, and open-ended questions. The researcher is the primary data-collection instrument.

Mixed Methods Data & Collection

Collect multiple kinds of data: mixture of variables, words, categories, and images.

Action Data & Collection

Collect forms of data based on the specific situation studied and action taken: this can be strictly quantitative, but often it consists of a mixture of numerical data, descriptive/language data, etc.

Quantitative Data Analysis

Identify statistical relationships among variables.

Qualitative Data Analysis

Use descriptive/language data; search for patterns, themes, and holistic features; and appreciate difference/variation.

Mixed Methods Data Analysis

Quantitative and qualitative analysis used separately and in combination.

Action Data Analysis

Matches approach to local need, typically utilizing quantitative or mixed approaches.

Quantitative Study Results

Generalizable findings providing representation of objective outsider viewpoint of populations.

Qualitative Study Results

Particularistic findings; provision and integration of insider viewpoints on the phenomena under study.

Mixed Methods Study Results

Provision of “subjective insider” and “objective outsider” viewpoints; presentation and integration of multiple dimensions and perspectives.

Action Study Results

Mix of specific findings related to explaining the environment and generalizable conclusions for larger educational community.