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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Quantitative Research Question

a question about the relationship that exists between two or more variables

Descriptive Questions

Seek to answer questions

Predictive Questions

ask whether one or more variables can be used to predict some future outcome

Causal Questions

compare different variations of some phenomenon to identify the cause of something


research’s inherent understanding of reality and truth as perceived by the researchers themselves


overall understanding of how knowledge is created or shared


all events are fully determined by one or more causes

Components of Research Process

1. Purpose 2. Research Questions 3. Assumptions 4. Sampling Methods 5. Data Collection Methods 6. Research Methods 7. Quality Criteria 8. Data Analysis 9. Report Writing


the process of drawing a sample from a population

Equal Probability of Selection Method (EPSEM)

each individual in the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample

Quantitative Observation

the standardization of observational procedures in order to obtain reliable quantitative data, such as counts or frequencies and percentages

Experimental Research

manipulating variables in a controlled environment to isolate the causal effects of a particular variable or set of variables

Non-Experimental Research

These methods generally can describe relationships or patterns of relationships, but do not easily allow for causal inferences


estimate the characteristics of populations based on their sample data

Hypothesis Testing

test specific hypotheses about populations based on their sample data


a condition or characteristic that can take on different values or categories such as age, grade point average, test scores, and gender


something that does not change, but takes on a single value

Quantitative Variable

varies in degree or amount of a given variable within a given phenomenon, usually provided in numerical form

Categorical Variable

a variable that varies in type or kind, generally relating different groups

Independent Variable

presumed to cause a change to occur in another variable

Dependent Variable

presumed to be influenced by one or more independent variables

Intervening (Mediating) Variable

occurs between two other variables in a chain of cause-and-effect

Moderator Variable

changes (i.e., moderates) the relationship between other variables

Extraneous Variables

variables other than the independent variable of interest (e.g., teaching approach) that may be related to the outcome

experimental research (2)

identify causal relationships because it allows researchers to observe, under controlled conditions, the effects of systematically changing one or more variables


intervention studied by an experimenter

Confounding Variables

extraneous variables that were not controlled for by the researcher and are the reason a particular result occurred

nonexperimental research (2)

no manipulation of an independent variable. There also is no random assignment to groups by the researcher—as random assignment is only possible in the strongest of the experimental designs

Causal-Comparative Research

examines the relationship between one or more categorical independent variables and one or more quantitative dependent variables

Correlational Research

the researcher studies the relationship between one or more quantitative independent variables and one or more quantitative dependent variables

Correlation Coefficient

numerical index that provides information about the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables

Positive Correlation

present when scores on two variables tend to move in the same direction

Negative Correlation

present when the scores on two variables tend to move in opposite directions