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44 Cards in this Set

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Define GONAD
sperm-producing testes in men and ovaries in women
- gonades produce sex cells called gametes that secrete a variety of steroid hormones;
- COMMONLY called, sex hormones;
- MALES produce male gametes called sperm;
- FEMALES produce gametes called ova or eggs;
"create a new me"
- basis of gamete production;
- genetic DNA, half from male (23 chromosomes) and half from egg (23 chromosomes) = 46 chromosomes
Define MITOSIS, in relation to the reproductive system
- division of a cell;
- growth & repair;
Name the ORGAN that delivers SEMEN to the female reproductive tract
Name the SITE of testosterone PRODUCTION
Name the PASSAGEWAY from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
Ductus deferens
What CONVEYS both sperm & urine down the length of the penis?
Name the ORGANS that CONTRIBUTE to the FORMATION of semen
- bulbourethral glands
- seminal vesicles
- prostate gland
What do you call the EXTERNAL SAC that houses the testes?
What is the TUBULAR storage site for sperm; hugs the lateral aspect of the testes.
What do you call the CUFF of SKIN encircling the GLANS penis?
What surrounds the urethra at the base of the bladder; produces a milky fluid?
Prostate gland
What accessory gland produces over half of the seminal fluid?
seminal vesicles
What produces a lubricating mucus that CLEANSES the urethra?
Bulbourethral glands
What is the connective tissue sheath enclosing the ductus deferens, blood vessels and nerves?
Spermatic cord
What is testosterone synthesised from?
testosterone is a steroid hormone, synthesised from cholesterol
True or False
Testosterone has a multiple ANABOLIC effect in the body?
What does testosterone promote in puberty?
What is testosterone converted to in the brain?
estradiol, equivalent of female estrogen
Name secondary sex characteristics
- pubic, axillary and facial hair
- deepening of voice
- bones & muscles increase in size and mass (somatic effects)
- skin thickens & becomes oilier
- men stay fertile until well into their 80's or until testosterone ceases
Define Menopause
no periods for one year
What is perimenopause?
sporadic periods in one year
What happens in menopause?
- uterus atrophy (shrinks)
- vaginal dryness
- vaginal wall thins
- breast fat stores decrease
What happens to HDL and LDL cholesterol BEFORE menopause?
HDL is high
LDL is lower
estrogen keeps LDL low
What happens to HDL and LDL cholesterol AFTER menopause?
HDL is low
LDL is higher
lack of estrogen to keep LDL low
What is the general age women go through menopause?
47 - 54 years
Before ovulation
- Days 1 - 14 follicular growth
- unstable phase; more changes; liptin hormone that sets off periods needs liptins (body fat)
What is the LUTEAL PHASE?
After ovulation
- pretty constant phase
What is the cornona radiata?
"crown of thorns" around the egg
What does LH & FSH do?
- stimulates estrogen
- negative feed back
what hormone "holds" pregnancy and maintains the lining of the uterus?
When does progesterone stay high?
during pregnancy
When does progesterone drop?
- when u r ready to deliver
- this dip might be related to postnatal depression
Name the 3 cycles of change the uterine endometrium goes through each month
- menstrual phase
- proliferative phase
- secretory phase
What is the MENSTRUAL phase?
- lining of the uterus is shed
- bleeding phase
What is the PROLIFERATIVE phase?
- rebuild inner lining of uterus
- that portion of the uterine (menstrual) cycle when the endometrium regenerates and thickens
What is the SECRETORY phase?
- after ovulation
- the second half of the menstrual cycle after ovulation; the corpus luteum secretes progesterone which prepares the endometrium for the implantation of an embryo; if fertilization does not occur then menstrual flow begins
What is the LUTEAL phase?
- is the latter phase of the menstrual cycle
- it begins with the formation of the corpus luteum and ends in either pregnancy or luteolysis
What is the CORPUS LUTEUM?
The corpus luteum, which means yellow body in Latin, is what is left of the follicle after a woman ovulates
Name the ANATOMICAL changes that take place in pregnancy
- breast enlarge
- areola enlarges
- uterus enlarges
- weight gain
- chadwick sign
- lordosis (posture change)
what is the chadwich sign?
cervix changes color (more purple)
Name the METABOLIC changes that take place in pregnancy
- hPL (human placental lactogen) increases
- hCT (human choronic thyrotropin)
- parathyroid hormone goes up
what is surfactant protein A
hormone from babies lungs, released when baby is ready to be born : tells cervix to soften