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44 Cards in this Set

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What does it mean to be infertile?

You can't reproduce and have children

What are the sex cells called?

Gametes

What is fertilisation?

The process when a male cell and a female cell join to create a zygo.

What do the testes do?

Produce sperm

What do the ovaries do?

They contain eggs and produce hormones

Explain the journey of a sperm cell in order for it to be successfully fertilised?

Out the testes --> through the sperm tube --> out the penis --> into vagina --> through cervix


--> through uterus --> into oviduct --> fertilised

What are the causes of infertility in women?

Blocked oviduct (fallopian tube)


Ovaries aren't releasing any eggs.

What are the causes of infertility in men?

Blocked sperm tube


Low sperm count

What is external fertilisation?

When the fertilisation occurs outside the body e.g. Fish. Sperm and eggs are released and meet by chance in water.

What is internal fertilisation?

When the fertilisation occurs inside the body. E.g. mammals and birds

Is it possible for someone who is infertile to have children with their DNA? If so how?

Yes, by using In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)

What is the dividing bundle of cells called?

An embryo

How does IVF work?

Hormones are given to the woman to produce mature eggs --> the eggs are collected --> the sperm from the male is selected --> the fittest sperm cells are selected --> the sperm is added to the eggs --> the three healthiest embryos are injected into the uterus

What is the name of the fluid the baby develops in called?

Amniotic fluid

What is the name of the bag of fluid the baby develops in called?

Amnion

What is the cord connected to the baby called?

The umbilical cord

Which foods should you avoid during pregnancy?

Soft cheeses


Pate


Liver products


Raw meats or fish


Foods containing high levels of mercury

How many extra calories are needed per day during the last 3 months of pregnancy?

200 calories

Where does fertilisation take place?

Oviduct (fallopian tube)

What is the outside of the uterus called?

Uterus wall

What is the sticky substance the umbilical cord is attached to called?

Placenta

When the mother consumes alcohol where do the molecules go?

Into the baby's bloodstream

The baby's blood cells come very close to the mothers but do they ever meet?

NO

What is it called when an animal wants to attract a mate?

Courtship behaviour

Adolescence changes - boys?

Height spurt


Growth of penis and testes


Voice box (larynx) growth


Facial hair


Hormones


Produce sperm

What is conception?

When an embryo develops into a foetus

What is pollination?

When a ripe pollen grain lands on a stigma

Explain the process of pollination

The pollen grain is trapped on the sticky surface of the stigma --> the grain grows down through the ovary wall to reach he egg --> The nuclei merge and get fertilised --> an embryo is formed --> seed

What is self-pollination?

The pollen grain and stigma are from the same plant

What is cross-pollination?

When a pollen grain from a different plant lands on a stigma

How does the pollen grain reach the stigma?

Wind blows it


Insects move it


Long filaments


Hairy/feathery stigmas

What is a fertilised egg called?

A zygo

What is implantation?

When the embryo burrows into the lining

Why is the nicotine and the poisonous gas is smoking bad during pregnancy?

It can pass into the baby's bloodstream and affect it's growth and development.

Which vitamins are recommended during pregnancy?

Folic acid and vitamin D

What passes from the baby's bloodstream, into the mother's?

Carbon dioxide and waste

What can large amounts of alcohol do during pregnancy?

Reduce birth weight and cause foetal alcohol syndrome

What is the female part of a flower called?

Carpel

What si the male part of a flower called?

Stamen

Why are no extra calories necessary during the first 6 months of pregnancy?

Because the body is very efficient at using food

Explain the process of birth

The uterus muscle starts contracting regularly


--> baby pushed downwards --> pressure on cervix whilst it stretches (dilates) --> fully dilated --> amniotic sac bursts releasing fluid (waters breaking) --> baby pushed out of vagina --> umbilical cord cut --> placenta is ejected from the uterus

What is the fluid the baby grows in called?

Amniotic fluid

What is the bag of fluid called?

Amnion

How does the foetus get its food?

The mother eats food and the food is digested and absorbed in the mothers bloodstream. This bloodstream enters the placenta also where the baby's blood is also flowing into. The two bloodstreams run very close together. The nutrients, antibodies and waste products travel from one side to the other without meeting.