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31 Cards in this Set

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What are the hormones involved in female reproduction?

Estrogen, Progesterone, gonadotropic hormone

How many eggs are present at birth, puberty, and for a lifetime?

- 2 million at birth


- 3-400,000 at puberty


- 400 released during a lifetime

What happens during menopause?

Follicles degenerate, and ovulation/egg release stops

What are the stages of the follicle in the ovarian cycle?

1. Primordial Follicle


2. Primary Follicle


3. Secondary Follicle


4. Vesicular Follicle


5. Secondary Oocyte release


6. Corpus Luteum


7. Corpus albicans



Primordial Follicle

Oocyte surrounded by squamous granulosa cells

Primary Follicle

Oocyte surrounded by cuboidal granulosa cells

Secondary Follicle

Oocyte surrounded by stratified granulosa cells.




-Theca folliculi forms the outer layer around the granulosa cells


-Zona Pellucida forms the barrier around the oocyte

Vesicular Follicle

- Houses the secondary oocyte


-Cavity filled with fluid called the antrum forms



Secondary oocyte release

-This is where ovulation occurs.


-The secondary oocyte is released along with the corona radiata, cells surrounding the oocyte here.

Corpus Luteum

-Produces high levels of progesterone and low levels of estrogen



Corpus Albicans

- Takes 14 days to form from the corpus luteum, unless pregnancy occurs then it takes 8-9 weeks

What are the two phases of the ovarian cycle?

1. Follicular phase- development of the follicle (variable)


2. Luteal phase- development of the corpus luteum ( fixed- 14 day duration)





When are you most viable to get pregnant after ovulation?

72 hours after ovulation

Explain the ovarian cycle and the hormones that control it

1. Hypothalamus releases GNRH, stimulating the release of FSH and LH from the posterior pituitary.


2. Follicle development, and now High levels of estrogen cause a surge of FSH and LH, this is where ovulation occurs


3. After ovulation, Corpus luteum releases low levels of estrogen, and high levels of progesterone creating a negative feedback mechanism thus decreasing levels of GNRH released

On what day is the surge of the gonadotropic hormones occurring?

Around the 13, 13.5 day (right before day 14 which is ovulation)

What happens with the endometrium throughout the uterine cycle?

-During menstruation, some of the uterine lining sloughs off and is released from the vagina.


-During the proliferation phase, the uterine lining starts to grow again with capillaries providing nutrients.


-If there is enough nutrients, the embryo can implant on the wall. If not enough, it will come out in the next mensis.

How long does it take for sperm to reach the egg?

30 minutes

What is the purpose of prostaglandin in the semen?

Causes the uterus and fallopian tubes to contract towards the egg, preventing bacteria from entering

What are the two female aids that help in sperm movement?

1. High levels of estrogen causes a reverse fluid pressure


2. Estrogen decreases cervical mucus

What are 2 factors that decrease sperm survival?

-Leakage from the vagina


- Acidity of the female tract

What assures monospermy?

The oocyte is stuck in metaphase II, Calcium finishes the cell division so the two DNA's can combine and form the zygote

How long does it take a fertilized embryo to implant on the uterine wall?

7 days

What do each of the blastocyst parts turn into in the early development phase?

-Trophoblast: placenta


-Intercellular mass: embryo



What is HcG responsible for and where is it released? (Human Corionic Ganadotropin)

-It is released from the trophoblast(placenta) and maintains viability of the corpus luteum.


-The release of the HcG causes an increase in estrogen and progesterone secretion in anticipation of birthing/lactation.

What is the positive feedback mechanism during birth?

-The estrogen from receptors on the wall of the uterus that recognize oxytocin.


- The oxytocin released from mother and child's pituitary gland stimulates uterine contractions and prostaglandins which cause more vigorous contractions.

What is lactogenesis?

The beginning of milk production

What is the first milk produced called, and what is it made of?

Colostrum: little fat, mostly protein, vitamins, IgA antibodies

How does lactation occur?

Rising levels of progesterone and estrogen cause the hypothalamus to release prolactine hormone (PRH)

What happens during galactopoiesis?

1. Pressure receptors on the nipple stimulate the hypothalamus to stimulate the posterior pituitary, where oxytocin is released.


2. Oxytocin is released stimulating cells in the breast to contract


3. Milk is released to infant

Why is the female pill effective with high doses of estrogen and progesterone?

It inhibits ovulation because the hypothalamus does not secret the LH

In what ways does the pill work with low doses?

-Increases amount of time it takes egg to reach endometrium


-abnormal endometrium development


-increases cervical mucus, stopping sperm from entering or trapping them here


-abnormal contraction of fallopian tubes and uterine muscles