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91 Cards in this Set

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Renal System has three functions:

1) Excretion - the removal of organic waste products from the body fluids.


2) Elimination, the discharge of these waste products into the environment.


3) Homeostatic regulation of the volume and solute concentration of blood

Major Organs in Renal System

1) Kidney - produces urine


2) Ureter- transports urine toward the urinary bladder


3) Urinary bladder- temporarily stores urine prior to urination


4) Urethra- releases urine to the exterior environment, and in male it transports semen

Kidneys

They reside inside the back muscles in the upper abdominal cavity. They are retroperitoneal structures behind the peritoneum layer. Easiest to access through back

Hilum

Is the point of entry for the renal artery (delivers oxygenated blood to kidney) and the renal nerves. Also point of exit for the ureter and the renal vein (takes deoxygnated blood to heart)

Cortex

Outer region of kidney

Medulla

Inner section of kidney

Cardiac Output

20-25% of 500 ml of Cardiac output goes to the kidneys

Major Functions of the Kidneys

1) Regulate blood volume + composition


2) Regulate blood pressure


3) Regulate certain aspects of metabolism


4) Endocrine function (erythropoietin EPO to produce RBC)


5) Regulate pH (long term)



Nephron

Functional unit of kidney, found in cortex


Roles


1) Filter (pass) blood, clean blood


2) Reabsorb what is filtered (99%)


3) Secrete or eliminate products.


Anything filtered and secreted but not reabsorbed is eliminated from blood

Filtrate

Solution produced during filtration

GFR

Glomerular Filtration Rate. The rate of filtrate formation at the Glomerulus. 124ml/min. 180L/day

Measuring GFR (how well the kidneys function)

Endogenous (made in the body)


1) Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)


2) Serum Creatinine (muscles)


Exogenous (outside of body)


radioactive istopes

Parts of Nephron


Vascular Components

20% of blood from arota to renal artery. Renal artery split until afferent arterioles. Takes blood to nephrones, give rise to a the glomerulus capillary. Filtration is a passive process, things that are small and not charged. The glomerulus has the highest capillary pressure of 55-60 mmHg instead of usual 30. Gives rise to Efferent Arteriole which gives rise to peritubular capillaries where secretion and re-absorption occurs.

Peritubular Capillaries

Are located next to the nephrons. As blood leaves the kidneys, minerals and ions are reabsorbed through the capillaries back into the blood. Ions that are not needed are excreted through the capillaries and sent to the bladder.Blood travels into the kidneys to be filtered, and then the filtered blood exits the kidneys through the peritubular capillaries. These capillaries completely surround the tubules, which contain all of the fluid and particles that have been removed from the blood. It is through the peritubular capillaries that the important nutrients needed by the body are reabsorbed back into the blood. Maintain concentration gradient Sites of secretion and filtration and reabsorption

Parts of Nephron


Tubular Components

The Renal Corpuscle is made up of Bowman's Capsule and the Glomerulus. Filtration occures from Glomerulus across Bowman's capsule. Osmotic Pressure is 300 and said to be isotonic (solution to solvent ratio is same). Filter 124 ml/min of filtrate into nephrons which same same pressure as blood 300. 99.9% of filtrate is reabsorbed through carrier mediated, simple diffusion and active transport

Step 1

Filter 124 ml/min at same osmotic pressure as blood in Bowman's capsule

Step 2

70% of all stuff we filter is reabsorbed in proximal tubule. Osmotic pressure stays the same. Simple diffusion

Step 3

Loop of Henle. Have a descending loop which is only permeable to absorb water through passive process. While ascending loop is active re-absorption of electrolytes. (25% reabsorption)

Counter-current Multiplication

When we reabsorb electrolytes through active process in ascending loop such as Na, Cl, K. This multiples and increases passive reabsorption of water in descending loop

Isotonic

30/10 = 3 As enters proximal tubule same concentration

Descending Loop

Lose water and lose volume so osmotic pressure is 30/5 = 6. Hypertonic solution has less water. Solute/Solvent

Ascneding loop

lose solutes. 10/5 = 2. Volume goes down, lose solute so hyptonic

Solvent is always water. ATP pulls out water 20-30% in descending loop

Osmosis

is driven by electrolytes concentration gradient

Interstitial Fluid

Is outside of loop

After loop of Hnele

Goes to distal tubule

Distal Tubule

Sensitive to aldestrone (produced in adernal gland) and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) which promotes retention of solution. So reabsorb sodium so also retains water. Thus volume goes down.

After Distal Tubule

Leads to Collecting Duct System. Change in osmotic pressue

After Collecting Duct System

Leads to the Renal tubules (pyraminds) leads to bladder and is eliminated

Some things can't be filtered so must be secreted. Actively moved from blood to distal tubules which takes to bladder and secreted as urine

Bladder has stretch receptors in destrusor muscle. 150mL brain gets signal to release urine. Controlled by autonomic nervous system. Parasympthetic S2-S4 release. Symphatic L1-L2 relax.

Diabetes

Occurs when water is being pulled into tubules in loop of henle instead of being pushed outward in descending loop. Due to osmotic pressure being larger than usual which leads to increased urinination and thirst

Eliminate salt to lower high blood pressure

As in ascending loop has salt coming back. Block reabsorption of salt, decrease gradient, less fluid reabsorbes into body. Lowers volume of blood thus pressure is lowered.

Hypertensive

Close pumps in loop of henle. So eliminate gradient cause water to leave body, lose volume to lower pressure and decrease venous return and stroke volume

Autoregulation

local blood flow regulation. Maintain an adequate GFR despite changes in local blood pressure and blood flow.

Myogenic Mechanism

How arteries and arterioles react to an increase or decrease in blood pressure. Changes to diameters of afferent arterioles, effert arterioles and glomerular capilaries maintain GFR. Afferent- bring blood, efferent- bring blood out of glomerulus. Do it independt of blood pressure. So reacts to change in blood pressure in order to keep the flow of blood constant

Capillary Pressure in glomerulus

Is highest due to high diffusion coefficient. Is determined by myogenic responses mostly and hydrostatic and osmotic pressure

Renin - Angiotensin - Aldostorne System

Contact between the distal tubule and afferent arteriole is JG (Juxtaglomerular) apparatus. Specialized cells mascula densa sense change in blood pressure. Stimulate JG cells to secrete hormone called renin

Renin

Is an enzyme that acts on circultaory system, reacts with angiotensinogen protein to form angiotensin I, which goes to lungs and converted to angiotensin II by enzyme ACE in lungs (Angiotensin-converting enzyme).

Angiotensin II

Goes to blood vessles, causes blood vessels to contrict. Increases TPR. In adernal gland releases aldestrone which conserves Na +, increases blood volume, EDV, SV, CO and GFR all increase so everything is back to normal following lowered blood pressure. Powerful vessel constrictor (narrow blood vessels)

Hormones + Kidney

1) Renin


2) Erythryprotein - stimulate production of red blood cells. 20% of CO


3) Intermediate step in synthesis of vitamin B 12



Urine

Something filtered or secreted but not reabsorbed, is eliminated from blood

Urine transportation

Transported by Ureter, stored in bladder. Which is made up of detrusor muscle (stretch receptors). Sends message to brain at 150 mL. As controlled by autonomic nerevous system. Which have no conrol parasympehtic release and symphatic relax. Somatic Nervous system (Pudendal nerve) can be controlled

60% of Body weight is H2O. Factors affecting amount of H2O in body

Water retention, amount of body fluids, overall health, gender, age and % of body fat. Body weight is based on fluid retention

2 major compartment of body fluids

Intracellular Fluid (ICF) - 67% of all H2O (fluid inside cells, cytosol)


Extracellular Fluid (ECF) - 33% of all H2O (fluid outside of cells) - First place to lose/gain H2O


Made up of Plasma 8 % of all H2O and Interstital Fluid 25% (solution that surrounds cells)

Separation of ICF and ECF

ICF and ECF are separated by a semi-permeable membrane. Osmosis of H2O is driven by osmotic pressure. Move from high to low, as high osmotic pressure indicates high concentration of solutes which attracts H2O (solvent). Move from hypotonic to hypertonic. H2O moves through membranes such as blood vessels

Digestion

Two Types which begin in the oral cavity


1) Mechanical - happens when grind upon food by using teeth


2) Chemical - happens with release of enzymes/chemicals

Mechanical Digestion

Requires teeth and muscles begins

Chemical Digestion in Oral Cavity

Driven by salivary glands which are all paired


1) Parotid (largest) where mumps occurs


2) Submandibular


3) Sublingual


Salivary glands are controlled by parasymphatic nerves (stimulates the production of saliva) and symphatic which shuts down everything. Make 1.0 L of saliva daily

Saliva Enzymes

Amylase - allows to start breakdown of carbohydrates, from polysachride to monosachrides.


Lingual Lipase - enzyme breaks small amounts of lipids


Lysozyme - part of immune system

Pharynx

Common pathway of food, water and air. Throat. Tube that funnels food into esophagus or air into the layrnx

Esophagus

Move food from oral cavity to stomach through peristalsis which is a series of wave-like muscle contractions

Enteric Nervous System (ENS)

It is a nervous system that is only found in digestive system. Begins in the esophagus and it works with autonomic nervous system

Gastrointestinal wall

Are the 4 tissue layers that covers organs of the gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach and intestines) from inside to out


1) Mucosa - has its own immune system (GALT Gut-associated lymphoid tissue)> Smooth muscle


2) Submucosa


3) Muscularis


4) Adventitia


The majority of the smooth muscle is in the submucosa and muscularis

Epithelium

Innermost layer of the mucosa

VAGUS

Is the 10th carnial nerve, parasymphtic and it controls digestion

Stomach

Below heart and is connected to the esophagus. Made up of 4 sections.


1) Cardia - smallest section connects eosphagus and stomach


2) Fundus - connects to diaphram


3) Body - largest region, a mixing tank for ingested food


4) Pylorus (lowest part) connects to the duodenum (small intestine)

Simple Columnar Epithlium

Larger than wide. Responsible for secretion and absorption. From stomach to large intenstine

Chyme

The acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food. Expelled from stomach to the duodenum.

Rugae

Are highly convoluted folds that make up the stomach to increase the surface area and thus diffusion as Fick's Law

Gastric Pits

Are openings to gastric gland

Gastric Gland contains many cells:

Contains Chief Cells, Parietal Cells, G Cells and Mucus Cells. The area of protein digestion

Chief Cells

Secrete pepsinogen an inactive enzyme with HCI is converted to pepsin which is a protein digesting enzyme

Parietal Cells

Proton pump to form HCI to make pepsin. Also secrete intrinsic Factor (glycoprotein) which can cause amenia and is used to absorb vitamin B12 for production of RBC

G Cells

produce Gastrin a hormone which prepares stomach (muscles) for intake of food

Mucus Cells

Protect stomach against acids and digestive enzymes

Aspirin and alcohol

are two compounds absorbed through mucosa

Digestive Tract

From esophagus to large intestine and pancreas. Inner linings of the mucosa consists of enteroendocrine cells which are tall and wide cells that reabsorb and secrete particles

Submucosa/Muscularis

Contains the Enteric Nervous system. Which coordinates local movement. Significant amount of smooth muscles are used. Parasymphatic control the outer part

Small Intestine

Made up of 3 components.


1) Duodenum - 10 inches (receive food from stomach)


2) Jejunum - 8ft


3) ilenum - 12ft

Mucosa

Highly convoluted, in order to maximize surface area.

Microvilli

Brush border and used to increase surface area. Simple columnar cells in small intestine have Microvilli.

Gastric Inhibitory Peptide

GIP hormone in duodenum feedback to stomach and digestive track to shut off as not ready. Tough to digest lipids, takes time

Secretein

Go to pancreas from Duodenum, cause release of bicarb HCO3. Acidity of stomach is 1.5, bi-card used as a buffer to neutralise acidity. Bring it up to 4.5

Cholecystokinin

CCK- released in presence of fat in the Duodenum. Gets to Gall Bladder and squeezes it to release bile the beginning of lipid digestion

Duodenum

small surface area has other enzymes to digest other stuff. However does not reabsorb alot of stuff. So most digestion occures in the jejunum and ileum. Need pH to go up

Pancreas

Retropenial organ. Exocrine used in digestive system. Aciniar Cells are responsible for exocrine functions. Release compounds to facilitate digestions. Release lypases, HCO3.

Pancreas Enzymes for protein digestion

Release


1) Typsinogen


2) Chymotrypsinogen


3) Proteases


Proteases are enzymes that break large protein complexes from endothailial (first layer in mucosa) cells in small intestine.

Role of pesin

Pepsin release in acidic environment 1-2 pH, gets to the duodenum where pH is increased to 4-5. Binds to typsinogen to form trypsin. Trypsin forms chymotrypsin from Chymotrypsinogen. These enzymes break down proteins to amino acids.


Inactive enzymes end with inogen and active enzyems end with ypsin

Liver

Largest internal organ. It produces bile which is important in the absorption of lipids.


Bile

Is produced in liver, important for lipid digestion. However it is transported to the gall bladder by the hepatic duct

The right and the left hepatic ducts collects bile from all bile ducts of liver lobes, these ducts unite to form common hepatic duct, which leaves liver to cystic duct which leads to gall bladder. Common bile duct is formed in union of cystic duct and common hepatic duct

NA

Proteolytic

Enzymes that break down proteins

Mucos Neck Cells

Secrete mucous, which protects linings of digestive system, used as a lubricant

Primary building block of gall stones is cholesterol and liver important in production of cholestoral

NA

Liver

Whatever ingest food goes to liver, everything that goes into body enters liver unless secreted. First-Pass

Liver has 4 lobes

Right Lobe- Largest

Quardurate and caudate lobes only seen posteriorly.


Quadrate lobe is associated with gallbladder. Caudate lobe with inferior vena cava


Left Lobe



Lobules

Division of liver contains central vein. Sinusoids are pathways that connect lobules to central vein. Sinusoids are made out of hepatocytes (liver cells). Sinsuoids carry blood.


Central Veins drain blood to inferior Vena Cava

Digestive Tract - Portal Vein - GI gastrointestinal - 80% venous and 20% arterial

Hepatocytes

Make bile

Cancer Cells

Go to sinusaides then to central vein then inferior vena cava and rest of body

Large Intestine

Absorb reminder of water that is left over from small intestine. E. Coli is used in digestion of food. Works in mass movements, volume activates movement.