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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
K+ normal values
3.5-5.0 mEq/L
3.5-5.0 mmol

critical levels <2.5 or >6.5
Hypokalemia S&S
weakness, fatigue, anorexia, abdominal distension. cardiac arrhythmias (too much lasix) tachycardia, hypotension, flacid muscles, flat t waves, u waves. (CNS depression) ventricular irritability
Hyperkalemia S&S
cardiac arrhymias, anxiety, increased bowel sounds, abdominal cramps (renal failure) bradycardia, tall-peaked t waves, tremors twitching (CNS stimulation)
Food sources of K+
Apricots,Avocado Banana meat, dairy, dried fruit, Cantaloupe raisins, broccoli, Honeydew Kiwi Lima beans Milk Oranges and orange juice Potatoes Prunes Spinach Tomatoes Vegetable juice
Low potassium diet
Bread, eggs, celery, apples, berries, grapefruit, peaches, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, onion, squash
Na+ normal values
136-145 mEq
136-145 mmol
critical levels
<120 or >160
Hyponatremia S&S
fatigue, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, weakness, hypotension, cool clammy skin
dec. CO, dec. contractility
Hypernatremia S&S
thirst, dry sticky mucous membranes, dry tongue and skin, increased temp
High sodium foods
beets celery oysters prepared food tomato juice
Ca++ normal values
9-11 mg/dL, 2.05-2.54 mmol/L
Critical levels:
>12, <7
Magnesium lab values
1.3-2.1 mg/dL
critical levels
<1, >5
Hypomagmesemia S&S
CNS stimulation, irritability, increased reflexes, ventricular irritability
Hypermagmesemia S&S
CNS depression, hypo reflexes, brady, hypotension
Phosphorus PO4 lab values
2.5-4.5 mEq/dL

Critical levels
Hyperphosphatemia S&S
Hypophosphatemia S&S
trouble breathing or respiratory problems, confusion, irritability, or coma
BUN (Blood urea Nitrogen)
10-20 mmg/dL
Critical levels
>40 not dehydrated/no Hx of renal disease
>100 w/ Hx or renal disease
>20 increase in 24 hrs= Acute renal failure
Cr (Serum Creatinine)
Kussmaul respirations
fast, deep. compensation for metabolic acidosis
vitamin D activation in renal failure
hormone produced by kidney activated vitamin D