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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Two functions of the Urinary System?

1.) Elimination = discharge of waste products


2.) Homeostatic regulation = of the volume and solute concentration of blood plasma

What does the kidneys do?

Produce Urine

What does the Ureters do?

Transport Urine toward urinary bladder



What does the urinary bladder do?

temporarilystores urine prior to elimination

What does the urethra do?

Urethra =expells urine to exterior

What are the functional units of the kidneys called?

Nephrons

What does the nephrons of the kidneys do?

performfiltration, reabsorption, and secretion

Which sits lower? Right or Left Kidney?

RIGHT

In the kidney, what is the exit site of the ureter, where the renal artery and nerves enter, and where the renal vein exits??

Hilium

What covers the outer surface of the kidney?

Fibrous capsule

Explain the placement of the cortex and the medulla on the kidneys

Cortex is outside, and medulla inside

What is a Renal Pyramid?

Yellow part is the renal papilla

Yellow part is the renal papilla

Where is urine produced?

Renal pyramids and overlying areas of renal cortex

Ducts from the renal papilla dump into what?

Minor Calyx

Minor Calyces merge to form?

Major calyces

Major calyces

Major calyces combine to form ?

Renal pelvis

Renal pelvis

Where is the production of filtrate occur?

Renal Corpsucle

Filtrate leaves renal corpuscle and enters where?

Renal tubule

What does the Renal Tubule do?


  • Reabsorbinguseful organic molecules/nutrients from filtrate
  • Reabsorbingover 90% of water in filtrate
  • Secreting intotubular fluid any waste products that were missed by filtration

What does the renal corpsucle consist of?

Capillary network of glomerulus and glomerular capsule

What is the Glomerular/Bowman's capsule?

forms theouter wall of the renal corpuscle & encloses the glomerular capillaries

What are Podocytes?

cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus.



  • Have feet called pedicels that wrap

To enter capsularspace, solute needs to be small enough to pass:

  1. pores ofthe endothelial cells
  2. fibers ofthe basement membrane
  3. filtrationslits between the slender process of the podocytes

What does the proximal convoluted tubule do?

Reabsorbs water, ions, and organic nutrients and releases them into interstitial fluid around renal tubule

What does the distal convoluted tubule do?

Secretes acid, ions, drugs, and toxins

What does the loop of Henle do?

Further absorbs water (Descending) and sodium and chloride ions (Ascending)

Difference between the Descending and Ascending limb of Loop of Henle?


  1. Fluid flows towards Renal Pelvis (Descending
    or Renal cortex (Ascending)
  2. Permeable to water (Descending); Not permeable (Ascending)
  3. only ascending active transports Na and Cl out of tubular fluid

What are the three important process of Distal convoluted tubule


  • Active secretion of ions, acids, drugs
  • Selective reabsorption of Na
  • Selective reabsorption of water
  • Leads into collecting system

The collecting system consists of ?


  • Collecting ducts (Receives tubular fluid from many nephrons)
  • Papillary Ducts ( Formed frommany collecting ducts merging & delivers urine to minor calyx)

Wall of ureters are lined with?

  1. Innertransitional epithelium
  2. Middle smoothmuscle
  3. Outer C.T.

What is the urinary bladder consists of?

  • Stores ~1L of urine
  • Internal urethral sphincter (involuntary control of discharge)
  • Circular band of external urethral sphincter (Voluntary)
  • Lined by transitional epithelium

Circular band of external urethral sphincter consists of?

Skeletal fibers and its contractions are voluntary

What is BMR?

Basic metabolic rate: standardizedmeasurement of the minimal energy expenditure necessary to keep the body alive, laying down, following a 12-24 hour fast

what is RMR?

Resting metabolic rate: measurementof energy expenditure, while sitting upright performing metal activity but notphysical activity; No fast needed

What is SDA?

Specific dynamic action (SDA): is the measurement of the elevation in metabolic rate above BMR and RMR an hourof so after a meal (post-prandial); bring meal to eat that is either high inprotein,

What does "post-absorptive" mean?

After 12-14 hour fast

What does post-prandial mean?

After you eat

What is EMR?

Exercise metabolic rate: is the maximal oxygen uptake due to strenuous physical activity.

What is anabolic metabolism?

ANABOLICMETABOLISM is the increase in condensation reactions that require input ofenergy (endergonic).

What is Catabolic Metabolism?

CATAB0LICMETABOLISM is the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones releasingenergy for work and as heat (exergonic).