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99 Cards in this Set

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Dark Ages
renaissance perception of the middle ages, considered it a time of ignorance
the intellectual and artistic rebirth that occurred in the 15th century
largest and most central ren. movement
revolved around classical knowledge, secularism, individualism, the pursuit of knowledge, patronage of the arts, and the devlopement of political theory
focuses on enjoying life and worldy pleasures
disagreed w/ dark aged focus on the church and religious dogma
people began throwing parties just for fun, used art to brag/emphasize human nature
condemned conformation, promoted uniqueness
resulted in popularization of portraits, devlopement of big egos among the middle class
Renaissance Pursuit of Knowledge
scholars sought knowledge to gain understanding of this world, not the afterlife
increased interest in the humanities
history, literature, art, philosophy
known today as "the arts," focused on the aspects of the ideology for which it is named
Subject Matter
the topic depicted in a piece of art
Judeo-Christian Art
art whose subject matter pertains to religion or the church
Classical Art
art whose subject matter pertains to greek and roman history, myths, ideals, and styles
Art About Everyday Life
art whose subject matter pertains to average people and their lives, depicting farming, parties, and portraits
the way a work of art looks
art that looks realistic and life-like
art that is made to look unnaturally "perfect", removed undesirable traits, had great symbollic value in paintings
aka "anti-renaissance"
art that uses colors to show emotion, lots of symbolism
doesn't agree w/ relaism or idealism
how a work of art is created
Single Point Perspective
used to accurately depict 3D things in art by making all objects recede to a single point in the horizon
art technique that incolves using shading and light/dark contrast to give the illusion of depth
any art that depicts Mary w/ baby Jesus
aka Mater Dolerosa, any art that depicts Mary w/ the dead Jesus
puts more emphasis on Mary, shows her strength and courage despite her grief
Classical Revival
renewal of interest in greek and roman knowledge
scholars recovered classical writings and philosophy
artists began imitating classical sculpture
european middle class, underwent huge expansion w/ the revival of trade and growth of towns
played key role in renaissance, helped spread art through europe
Italian Renaissance
occurred in Italy, first in europe to go through the "rebirth"
feudalism died early in Italy, Italians monopolized banking, became rich from trade w/ the east after the crusades, and fought of German Frederick Barbarrossa
Renaissance Patrons
those who comissioned artists
fostered the rise and spread of humanists, art was used to show the importance of those who comissioned it
The Medici Family
the unofficial ruling family of Florence, ruled through intermarriage and by helping the poor/middle class
comissioned lots of art, helped spread the influence of early ren. artists
Lorenzo the Magnificent
greatest Medici leader, consolidated power, comissioned young artists like Botticelli, Da Vinci, and Michelangelo
christian fanatic that opposed humanist ideals b/c he thought they promoted sins
early medieval philosophers
also used classical knowledge, but used it differently than the humanists
promoted pure logic and science
Frencesco Petrarca
aka "father of Humanism"
rejected unrealistic ideals of chivalry
invented the sonnet, new form of poetry
wanted to be famous, ignored strict Christian limitations
condemned cold logic of Scholastics
emphasized all things human through his poems about his unrequited love for Laura
Giovanni Boccaccion
early Humanist, wrote poetry and romances
learned Greek, made a classical encyclopedia
written by Boccaccion about people escaping the Black Death
satirized knights and chivalry, opposed feudalism
Civic Humanism
educational program for Italian leaders, taught only relevant and useful aspects of classical knowledge
Platonic Revival
Plato's philosophy became popularized aover time
Humanists preferred Plato's work to Aristotle's work
Cosimo de Medici
ren. patron, made the Platonic Academy
Marsilio Ficino
lead the Platonic Academy
made first complete Latin translation of Plato's works
Pico della Mirandola
Ficino's disciple, claimed to know "everything" when he was only 23
Oration of the Dignity of Man
speech written by Mirandola, famous for it's high praise and glorification of man
focused on science, logic and metaphysics
allowed scientific thought and experimentalism to flourish
Aristotelians that followed the Muslim philosopher Averoës
believed that matter is eternal, denied immortality
Uomo Universale
aka the "complete man"
ren. ideal, someone w/ well-rounded knowledge, good social skills, and a good personality
put strength of character > inherited social class
stressed greco-roman excersize for physical balance
Gothic Art
realistic paintings and sculptures
architecture had high domes supported by buttresses
Florentine painer, master of transitional period
made life-like paintings, looked 3D
emphasized piety, appreciated everyday life
St. Francis Altarpieces
painted by Giotto in St. Francis cathedral
Italian for "400", abbreviation for the 1400s
time of revitalization of painting under Giotto
Quattrocenta painter, perfected Giotto's technique
mastered perspective, first to paint nude figures
inspired large-scale pursuit of realism
Expulsion From Eden
painted by Massacio, very realistic, depcits Adam and Eve leaving Paradise, and their human emotions
Andrea Mantegna
perfected drawing perspective, drew portraits to show the self-importance of the elite
Pierro della Francesca
painted scientifically, neglected emotion in favor of mathematical precision
resembles modern abstract painting
Sandro Botticelli
unconventional artist
fused christianity w/ pagan myths
last great Florentine painter of the early ren.
Birth of Venus
painting by Botticelli, combined roman goddess w/ religious imagery
Lorenzo Ghiberti
tried to imitate nature in his sculptures
ressurrected roman sculpture
Gates of Paradise
Florentine church doors made by Ghiberti
made freestanding bronze sculptures, new technology
recognized human body's muscle and bone structures, made nude sculptures based on them
bronze sculpture by Donatello
Andrea del Verrocchio
teacher of Leonardo da Vinci
showed supreme self-confidence in his sculptures
Bartolomeo Colleoni
statue by Verrocchio, shows a general on his horse
the sculptor was so skilled that he could make one of the horse's legs stand unsupported above the ground
Filippo Brunelleschi
mastered classical architecture
used arcades of roman arches, pediments, and columns
made the first domes since roman times
High Renaissance
the time when painting, sculpture, and architecture all reached their height
center of art moved from Florence to Rome b/c papal patrons were rich
Donato Bramante
ren. architect, teacher of Michelangelo
St. Peter's Basillica
started by Bramante, who replaced the old Constantine dome with a huge greek cross covered by a new dome
Bramante died before completion, left it to Michelangelo to finish
Leonardo da Vinci
excelled in EVERYTHING that was intellectual
most of his projects were unfinished
skilled at painting human emotion, portrayed the "intention of the soul"
Some of da Vinci's Works:
Mona Lisa
Last Supper
Vitruvian Man
used styles of da Vinci and Michelangelo
perfected design and balanced compostion in his paintings
drew many portraits of Madonna
Michelangelo Buonarrot
like da Vinci, was a genius
embodies the superhuman ideal in his art and in himself
used body language to show the attitude of his figures
greatest ren. sculptor
glorified the human body via nude paintings, idealized human dignity and majesty
Some of Michelangelo's Works:
St. Peter's Basillica
Ceiling of the Vatican's Sistine Chapel
Creation of Adam
Italian Wars
sparked in 1494 between France and Spain
1527, Rome was sacked, altered the artistic point of view
became center of ren. art after the sack of Rome
focused on colors and light in paintings
like Boticelli, rejected Quattrocento ideals
paintings had lyrical grace, told no story, the viewer had to interpret it
style of dreamy relaxation in paintings in Venice
made sexually-oriented nude models
robust, was aware of the world around him
focused on light and color
paintings have no conventional logic or order
rejects natural order of things
Madonna w/ the Long Neck
painting by Parmigianino, displayed Mannerist ideals
artist who replaced the balance, harmony, and idealism of the High Ren. w/ dramatic, sharp contrasts between light and color
Abduction of the Body of St. Mark
painted by Tintoretto, depicts 3 Venetians stealing the body of St. Mark, dark reality
Benvenuto Cellini
bragged about his sins, rejected artistic and moral standards
Mannerist sculptor, his statues and his Autobiography reflected the violent and corrupt society he lived in
Jesuit Style
named after the order that first sponsored it in the church of Rome
architecture manipulated classical techniques for anticlassical effects
the use of many voices in music, was used mainly in the later Medieval period
Musical Counterpoint
exchange between 2 melodies in music, used in later Medieval times and during the ren.
Paper and Block Printing
brought from China by the Muslims, who later brought it to Europe via the Moors
allowed books to be mass-produced and cheaper
Johann Gutenberg
German printer, created first movable printing press to be more efficient
Desiderius Erasmus
father of the northern ren. appreciated early christian writings
killed Latin, tried to change it too drastically
accused the church of straying too far from its early ideals
imposes his individuality
The Praise of Folly
written by Erasmus, satirized his contemporaries
criticized merchants, lawyers, Scholastics, scientists, and the clergy
Northern Renaissance
northerners were realists, tried to reform the corruption of the world
broadened intellectual scope to include early christian writings
made new and more accurate versions of the scriptures
valued morality and rational piety > ceremony and dogma
Sir Thomas Moore
English humanist and realist, challenged the political order of his time
was beheaded by Henry VII b/c of his radical reforms
written by Moore to criticize gov't
wanted a commonwealth, condemned capitalism as the bane of the poor
François Rabelais
wrote w/ humor to satirize society
loved all aspects of life, famous French humanist
Gargantua and Pantagruel
by Rabelais about 2 giants
encouraged educational reform, and valued human nature's inherent goodness
challenged the abuses of the church, condemned hypocrisy
Ulrich von Hutten
german humanist, combined religious reform w. patriotism
wanted to unite Germany under an empire, oppossed the corrupt papacy
Michel de Montaigne
french skeptic, first to develope the essay
advocated open-mindedness and tolerance
Miguel de Cervantes
wrote Don Quixote
Don Quixote de la Mancha
satirized chivalric ideals,the title character clings to his old ways to the point of self-detriment
recognizes that people must compromise between ideals and reality
Commedia Dell'arte
dramas about everyday life that used vulgar humor
resulted in the contruction of new theaters
Queen Elizabeth I
ruler of England during the climax of the english ren., was a patron of the arts
William Shakespeare
supreme figure in western literature
combined rich vocabulary, poetic eloquence, and imagination
wrote famous plays that devloped deep, relatable human characters
addressed universal truths
Some of Shakespeare's Works:
A Midsummer Night's Dream
Romeo and Juliet
Jan van Eyck
northern artist, painted realistically
perfected oil painting, which allowed for greater detail
Albrecht Dürer
first german painter to be influenced by italian art
blended the old and the new
made many engravings and woodcuts
created "Knight, Death and the Devil"
Hans Holbein the Younger
german painter, drew portraits w/ realism and dignity
drew the "Garden of Delight"
Pieter Brueghel the Elder
retained strong Flemish influence in his art