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49 Cards in this Set

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What three events led to the Renaissance?

- humanism


- growth of city states


- travel and commerce

What ideas did Europeans revive during the Renaissance?

Classical ideas.

What are the classics?

Ideas and philosophies of Greek and Rome.

Who was Petrarch?

An early leader of the Humanist movement. One of the first thinkers to stress the value of classical learning.

How did the re-opening of the Silk Roads affect Europeans?

It opened Europeans up to a host of new goods and ideas.

What desires did humanism strengthen?

To experiment, explore, and create.

The word Renaissance is French for...

Rebirth.

Why did Humanism weaken the Catholic church?

Humanism inspired people to think for themselves and not just blindly accept church teachings.

Where did the Renaissance begin?

1300s.

How long did the Renaissance last?

300 years.

An independent state consisting of a city and its surrounding territory is called a...

City-state.

Italian city-states were ruled by...

Merchants.

Which Italian city was the cradle of the Renaissance/the banking center of Europe?

Florence.

Which powerful merchant family ruled Florence?

Medici Family.

How did the Renaissance art differ from Medieval art?

Medieval art was mostly religious. Renaissance art was more realistic and had perspective.

What is perspective in art?

Perspective produces a 3-D appearance.

Who was the true "Renaissance Man" known for the Mona Lisa and his creative inventions?

Leonardo da Vinci.

Who sculpted the David and painted the Sistine Chapel ceiling?

Michelangelo.

What is the most famous piece of architecture from the Renaissance?

The Duomo.

What is the vernacular?

Common language.

Which Italian writer wrote the Divine Comedy and wrote in Italian instead of Latin?

Dante Alighieri.

Which Italian writer used his experience to write The Prince?

Niccolo Machiavelli.

What important invention helped with the spread of Renaissance ideas?

Printing press.

Who was Johann Gutenberg?

A German man who invented the printing press.

What were the impacts of the Printing Press?


(list four)

- hundreds of copies of books made quickly


- higher availability of books = cheaper books


- helped spread ideas


- started printing in the vernacular

List two ways the Northern Renaissance differed from the Italian Renaissance.

1. Northern Renaissance didn't study Classics.


2. Created more detailed works in everyday life.

Who was William Shakespeare?

He was the most famous writer and playwright of the Northern Renaissance.

List three types of Protestantism found in Europe in the 16th century.

1. Lutheranism


2. Calvinism


3. Church of England

List three reasons why the Catholic church was corrupt before the Renaissance.

1. Clergy more focused on good life than God


2. Clergy used questionable practices to raise $$


3. Popes concerned w/ power more than religion

What is an indulgence?

Indulgences were sold as if they were a pardon for a sin people could buy to avoid punishment in the afterlife.

The Catholic church briefly split into two churches during the 14th century. What was this event called?

Western Schism.

Who was the Dutch humanist that wrote a book attacking the corruption of the Church?

Desiderius Erasmus.

What was the name of the German monk who was the most successful reformer of the Reformation?

Martin Luther.

Luther argued that salvation was a gift from God which was given for a person's _______________.

Faith.

What is a Protestant?

The name for Christians who broke from the Catholic church.

Who was the church reformer that started Calvinism and argued for predestination?

John Calvin.

Which King of England started the Church of England?

King Henry VIII.

Why did King Henry VIII start the Church of England?

He wanted a divorce, but the pope said no.

What English reformer wanted the Church of England to abandon Catholic beliefs/practices?

William Tyndale.

What was the Counter Reformation?

The movement by the Catholic church that was started to clarify teachings, correct abuses, and win back followers.

What was the Council of Trent?

A council with meetings of church leaders that began in Trent, Italy.

List three things the Jesuits did.

- preach.


- educate people.


- perform services.

What was the Inquisition?

A movement within the Catholic church to seek out/condemn people with beliefs that were considered to be dangerous (heretics).

Why did Christian groups organize missions?

To persuade people with different religious views.

How did Protestantism spread overseas?

They settled overseas.

What did the Peace of Westphalia recognize?

The permanent division of Western Europe into Catholic and Protestant nations.

What did the Protestant practice of church self-government lead to?

The development of democratic practices.

The idea that people could join together and voluntarily form a government comes from what religious agreement?

Covenant.

How did church ideas lead to federalism?

Covenants of Calvinist churches allowed members of a church to share power with clergy.