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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Meaning of "Yom Kippur"
"Day of Atonement" (last day of the Holy High Days)
The three practices of Yom Kippur:
1. Worship services
2. Praying for forgiveness
3. Fasting
What does the Sundance of the Sioux symbolize?
The interconnectedness of all things
Two examples of the importance of animals in the Sundance of the Sioux:
1. the eagle carries people's prayers up into the heavens
2. the buffalo originally taught this dance to the tribe
Why do those who do the Sundance of the Sioux engage in self-torture?
It symbolizes moving from death into the next stage of life
What is Tenrikyo?
-Japanese New Religion (branch of Shinto)
-belief in kami
-no belief in an afterlife
-healing by faith
Founder of Tenrikyo? (+ date)
Miki Nakayama (19th century)
-kami revealed the truth to her
Who is Mary Baker Eddy? (+ date)
Founder of Christian Science (19th century)
Islam & Women:
How does salat differ for women?
1. female leadership
2. place of mosques
3. recent challenges to tradition
Define polygyny ... is it commonly practiced?
having multiple spouses (of either gender) ... no! but does occur in U.S. and is disapproved of by most Muslims
Feminist recontextualization of the Quran
-there ARE some verses that are against women...
-...but only because 7th century Arabia was anti-women
-...so we don't need to follow these anymore
What is the purpose of female genital mutilation?
to prevent women from experiencing sexual pleasure, so that they will not be unfaithful
How prevalent is FGM?
100 million females worldwide

(UNICEF and other orgs activey working against the practice)
Judaism & Women:
3 main branches of Judaism:
1. Orthodox (most traditional)
2. Conservative (compromise)
3. Reform (most contemporary)
Differing factors between the branches:
-language of the services (Hebrew vs. vernacular)
-women allowed to be leaders
-men and women sitting together
Examples of female inferiority in Orthodox Judaism:
-Dress code = entire body covered + wigs so that men aren't seduced
-mehitzah = barrier between men and women during worship services
-minyan = required number of people to hold a Jewish service... 10 MEN
-men not allowed to hear a women's singing voice
Date of first female ordination in Judaism?
Leader of Jewish Feminism?
Judith Plaskow
3 needs for Judaism (as described by Plaskow)
1. recognize that women have been important throughout history
2. women must play more roles in services
3. more feminist midrash
(midrash = interpretation of the Tanakh)
On Masculine Christianity:
Leading evangelical (+ date?)
Billy Sunday (early 20th century)
Major ideas of Masucline Christianity:
1. Christian men must show courage and strength
2. This courage and strength is developed through SPORTS! (YMCA)
3. The Promise Keepers (1990s series of conferences) focused on fidelity and husbandry
Major criticisms of Masculine Christianity:
1. Attack on femininity
2. Overgeneralizes gender differences
On Christianity & Women:
Ideas on Eve
Eve = responsible for sin
...and thus, more evil than men
Define complementarianism:
the husband and wife mutually support each other, but the husband is the leader in the marriage
Visual art in Judaism & Christianity:
Visual art in Islam:
Difference between Shia and Sunni beliefs?
Sunni believe you CANNOT have images of Muhammad/God OR religious leaders ... Shia believe you CAN have pictures of religious leaders (but not of Mohammad/God)
...so what CAN Muslims create images of?
1. Images of paradise (heaven)
2. Calligraphy
Basics of Buddhism:
Two main branches:
Theravada and Mahayana
Differences between the two branches of Buddhism:
Geography: T in South and SE Asia; M in China, Korea and Japan
Number of Buddhas: T = ONE (Siddhartha Gautama), M = many many Buddhas
Ultimate Goal: T = arhat (achieving nirvana and ceasing to exist) M = bodhisattva (achieving nirvana then returning to earth to help others do the same)
Three major forms of art in Buddhism:
1. the Enso (circle the symbolizes nothingness and infinity)
2. Mudras (symbolic hand gestures)
3. the Mandala (geometric, tedious art created by Buddhist monks)
On Judaism & Music:
Define cantillation:
Chanting of the Tanakh
2 forms of liturgical music in Judaism:
1. Kol Nidre - a specific song sung at the beginning of Yom Kippur
2. Nigunim -a style of fast-paced, joyful music characterized by syllables instead of lyrics (Hasidic Jews)
2 other forms of music in Judaism:
1. klezmer - originally intended for Jewish weddings
2. hip hop - e.g., Matisyahu!
On Music and Catholicism:
Define monophonic:
music without harmony (vs. polyphonic)
Gregorian chants?
monophonic and liturgical, originally thought to have been written by Pope Gregory in 600 CE
Second Vatican Council (+ date?)
(1960s) major goal was to modernize church in 3 ways:
1. contemporary music
2. major liturgical decisions (language, involved congregation, modern instruments)
On Music & Islam:
Christian hip hop:
3 major themes:
1. Overcoming evil
2. Social justice
3. Relationship with Jesus
Has Christian hip hop/rock achieved mainstream popularity?
YES! e.g., Grits, Stryper, Kutless, Evanescence, DC Talk, Switchfoot, etc.
Christian rock:
Father of?
Larry Norman
Major objections to Christian rock:
1. poor quality music compared to mainstream rock
2. inappropriate type of music
3. compromised evangelism
4. back-masking lyrics
5. too much emphasis on performance
6. lyrics are too shallow or too focused on people
3 possible relationships between religion and violence:
1. prevention
2. silence
3. promotion (sanctified violence)
Define Zionism:
Desire for Israelites to regain their home land (aka Zion)
2 events that led to establishment of the nation of Israel (+ date?)
1. the Holocaust
2. 20th century
2 conflicts after 1948:
1. Six-Day War (1967)
-Israel won
-Took over West Bank and Gaza strip
2. Oslo Accords (1980s)
-Israel promised to withdraw from WB and GS ... still have not completely done so
On Violence & Hinduism:
On Violence & Christianity:
The Crusades:
-series of military expeditions, European Christians vs. Muslims
-sanctioned by Pope
-1000-1500 CE
...... why?
1. Protect E. Christians from Muslim invasion
2. Reconquer the Holy Land
The Inquisition:
-an attempt by the Catholic Church to eliminate heresy (belief in something that is not an official teaching of the religion)
-16th century CE
-many burnings at the stake, often with no evidence
30 Years' War
-Protestant vs. Catholics
-16th century CE
Salem Witch Trials
-colonial New England
-many women (some men) accused of witchcraft and killed immediately
Christian pacifism
-Two examples
-interpretation of Jesus' teachings in Sermon on the Mount
-Mennonites and Quakers
Criticisms of Christian pacifism:
-no need to take Jesus' words so completely anti-violence
-complete pacifivism is impractical
Just War Theory:
4 key principles
1. Just Cause
2. Last Resort
3. Limited Objectives
4. Non-Combatant Immunity
On Islam & Violence:
Early Muslim battles
the Prophet Muhammad himself fought
Gave polytheists choice to convert to Islam or be killed
Medieval Spain
Jews, Christians and Muslims often lived together in peace ... but of course there were still conflicts
E.g.) Al-Qaeda, the stereotyped group of Muslims that is characterized by violence
Define jihad and two different forms:
-"to strive," very simply in the Quran
-violent jihad known as the "lesser"
-defensive and offensive
On Religion & Race:
3 main figures of the Nation of Islam:
1. Elijah Muhammad - founder in early 20th century
2. Malcolm X - 1950s
3. Louis Farrakhan - current leader
4 main beliefs of Nation of Islam:
similar to mainstream Islam:
1. believs Quran is the revelation of God
2. pray salat prayer 5x/day
Dissimilar to mainstream Islam:
3. believe in the divinity of Wallace Fard, God on Earth
4. no eternity at all in the afterlife (heaven is a ploy to brainwash slaves)
Founder of Rastafarianism:
-Haile Selassie - real name is Ras Tafari
Zion vs. Babylon
Zion = the promised land for Blacks
Babylon = the evil White civilization
Main points of Rastafarianism:
-Ganja = marijuana that brings one closer to God and is sanctioned by the Bible
-Dreadlocks (Leviticus says so and is a sign of social protest)
-Language (double meanings
Origin (+ date?)
Azusa Street Revival (early 20th century) ... comes from Acts 2 (the Pentecost)
Major beliefs of Pentecostalism?
-Second-blessing experience, where you must be filled with the Holy Spirit to perform miracles (speaking in tongues, typically)
...also, emotional worship services and healing by faith
Two major denominations of Pentecostalism:
1. Church of God and Christ
2. Assembly of God
Charismatic movement:
Pentecostal beliefs and practices in NON-Pentecostal churches
Word of Faith movement:
EXTREMELY emotional experience
Ideas behind White Supremacy
-Wesley Swift founded Christian Identity
-Ten Lost Tribes of Israel
-Jesus only died for Whites
-massive anti-Semitism
-view of non-Caucasians? God does not love them
-the Order is a subgroup who was responsible for numerous killings of Blacks in the 1980s
African American Slaves & Christianity
major trend UNTIL the mid-18th century, but then slave owners attempted to convert slaves to Christianity
Why didn't slave owners attempt to convert the slaves at first?
1. believed slaves had no souls
2. religious equality would slip into complete equality
Why DID slave owners then attempt to convert the slave?
1. slaves DO have souls
2. Christianity would make slaves more obedient and productive
3 settings of slave Christianity:
1. segregated churches
2. special services where the congregation was slaves, but the preacher was White
3. concealed churches
Black Spirituals:
4 major themes in lyrics:
1. suffering
2. heaven (and hope)
3. justice
4. exodus