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129 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The idea that the group lives in the individual relates to indigenous peoples’ orientation of
collective identity
Evidence suggests that the function of burial in indigenous societies was to
open a gateway to an afterlife
Becoming a ________requires an initiation and is often described as a death-and-rebirth experience.
For indigenous societies, being religious meant
experiencing an embodied engagement with the world
The Kung San of southern Africa are one of the most studied and late-surviving ____________ groups in the world.
Which of the following was NOT a major concern in indigenous societies?
Sacred sites that are considered places of original revelations are believed to be intensely alive with spiritual power, or a ________ presence.
In indigenous societies humans perceived _____ to be like sleep rather than a dissolution of the body.
The most basic expressions of religion include:
ritual, ability to create meaning, sacred space, devotion
When humans lived in hunter-gatherer societies, we believe that they regularly sought assistance from the spirits of their ancestors through ______________
altered states of consciousness.
A people’s cosmogony explains the world’s _____ and its essential powers.
The term “indigenous religions” implies that the social and religious lives of the groups are
rooted deeply to a given place
______ shamans refer to Westerners who promote shamanic tradition in their businesses and organizations.
According to French sociologist Emile Durkheim, religion’s power to _________ keeps it central to human life.
bind us together
The most common shaman’s role worldwide is the ability to _____.
The 19th century movement that North American shamans created to try to restore native peoples’ place in the world was called the _______.
Ghost Dance
Shamans across the world are predominantly ____.
The first shaman, an animal-human figure, may be shown in _____ art, suggesting that shamanism had its origins in the prehistoric era.
Across the globe, the role of a shaman is considered to be
mortally dangerous
The four religious figures central to understanding the world’s religions are _______
shaman, sage, priest, prophet
A term that means “representing the gods” is ______.
The term “ethical” in relation to World Religions is right action as expressed in _____ and______.
myth and ritual
A ______________ rejects important aspects of modernity and desires to return to the “purer” socio-political order of their ancestors:
Encounters with other religions, not only across the globe but also within our own neighborhoods (more than before):
From the ancient Greek meaning “to choose:”
The term for all-encompassing sacred stories through which humans interpreted life in their respective cultures is ____________.
Characterized by viewing religion as a matter of private personal faith or opinion rather than objective public knowledge:
Characterized by a collapse of all metanarratives, including those from religion and science:
When religion played the decisive role in explaining and ordering life:
Expresses the sense of being “tied and bound” to whatever powers we believe govern our destiny:
The authors argue that myth is:
an imaginative story conveying the essential truths of life
Conforming to a tradition’s doctrines is called ___________________
The world’s oldest religious specialist:
is called a shaman
Sacredness means:
what matters most to a given community
Religious language:
is almost always symbolic
A form of religious language is:
via negative
via analogia.
in metaphor
When humans began to individuate away from the premodern collective consciousness at the beginning of urbanization and see themselves as individuals, suddenly ___________ became a big personal problem.
The three great centers of civilization in the ancient world where the great world religions emerged are:
China, India, the Middle East
The first written expression dealing with the crisis of death that came about as a result of urbanization was ____________________
The Epic of Gilgamesh
The great world religions emerged to answer questions raised by the crisis of _______, __________, and _________..
morality, morality, meaning
The problem of life is “time” in:
myths of nature
Two embodiments of the myth of liberation are ______ and _______.
Hinduism and Buddhism
In myths of History, the central metaphor of religious expression is _______ and time is seen as a vehicle for encountering ultimate reality; ________ and __________ are myths of history.
story, Judaism and Christianity
The first religious tradition to spread its beliefs, practices, and critiques of nonbelievers globally was:
The Medieval mystical movement within Judaism and means “handed down”:
The name of the Hebrew Bible is_____.
Another word for Rabbi is ______.
The Hebrew Bible is divided into three sections:
1. Torah (the teachings)
2. Nevi’im (the prophets)
3. Ketuvim (the writings)
Cultural divisions that emerged in the Middle Ages are:
Sephardic and Ashkenazic
The Patriarchs of Judaism:
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob
Movement founded by Israel ben Eliezer, a mystic and faith healer, also known as Baal Shem Tov (good master of the Holy Name) is _____.
The religious specialist within Hasidism is called a Tzaddik or __________
righteous man.
Undergirding the commandments is the conviction that a ______ (promise) exists between YHWH and his people with responsibilities on both sides.
Established Jerusalem as a capital city and brought the ark of the covenant into it:
The prophet that warned of destruction and spoke of a new covenant with the house of Israel:
Psalm 137 is a manifestation of the sorrow felt by the Jews during their captivity in ______________
The Jewish New Year, recalling the creation of the world, and is begun by the blowing of the shofar reminding people they stand before God is ____________.
Rosh Hashanah.
Prayer Shawl that covers a man’s head and body during prayer is called:
The faction concerned with ritual purity and careful practice of religious laws, and the only faction to continue after the destruction of the Second Temple_____________
The term referring to the dispersion of the Jews beyond Israel is:
The interpretive work, called ____________ (seeking out), became a central focus of evolving Judaism.
The _______ Talmud is considered the second most important body of Jewish literature after the Hebrew Bible itself, and contains legal material (halakhah) and non-legal anecdotes and tales (haggadah, tradition).
Medieval thinker called Ramdan, who wrote “The Guide for the Perplexed” in which contains the 13 rules of faith.
Moses Maimonides
The Hebrew term referring to one of the greatest crimes ever committed against humanity, called the Holocaust, is _____
The Tanakh was primarily originally written in the ______________ language.
Central to all forms of Judaism is keeping the ______ (Shabbat), the seventh day of the week, as a special day. When kept properly, the observance is felt to sanctify the entire week.
Ten days after Rosh Hashanah comes the most sacred day of the year, ______, the Day of Atonement (see Lev 16) and this day has traditionally been kept by prayer and strict fasting, with no food or drink during the entire day.
Yom Kippur
______ is considered the great liberator/lawgiver and is often referred to as the founder of Judaism.
The weeklong festival of _______ (Pesach) occurs in the first lunar month and its primary role is to recall the Hebrews exodus from Egypt and to symbolize their liberation (Deut 16:1-8). The event is a memorial meal, the _____ (order), at which Jews eat several symbolic foods.
Passover , seder
Movement within Judaism that embraces enlightenment ideals and conducts services in the native language and Hebrew and whose goal is to modernize Judaism:
Movement that formed in response to the Reform and states change is always a part of religion and uses study and discussion to guide change carefully is called ________ Judaism.
The secular forms of Judaism are _________, __________ and ________
Jewish Socialism, Ethnic Judaism, and Zionism.
The three steps to the creation of the State of Israel are:
1. Theodore Herzl and the Jewish State
2. The Balfour declaration
3. The Holocaust
The pivotal event in the development of secular (political) Zionism that occurred in France in 1894 and prompted Theodore Herzl propose a Jewish State was;
Dreyfus affair
The founder of Christianity is ________
Jesus of Nazareth.
For Protestants, it is an undeserved gift of God’s acceptance of the sinner given through faith; for Catholics it is an undeserved gift that transforms the sinner and enables the sinner to cooperate with God’s work of spiritual renewal of the individual.
This term is called_______.
Gospel means:
"good news"
New Testament and __________mean the same thing and was foretold in Jeremiah as Christians see it as the fulfillment of the Old Covenant.
New Covenant
The general theme of Jesus’ teachings to be completed at his Second Coming when all injustice is overcome and suffering and death will be no more, was the_________
Kingdom of God
Two familiar parables mentioned in the lecture are:
The Good Samaritan and The Prodigal Son
Three disciples singled out by Jesus to witness certain significant events in his ministry:
Peter, James and John
The four Gospels are ________
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
One gospel presents the teachings and authority of Jesus in impressive accounts and discourses, such as those that feature the “I am” sayings. That Gospel is _________.
A rite believed to be a means of or visible form of grace is called a _____________
The birth of the Church and the coming of the Holy Spirit happened during the Jewish feast known as Sukkoth, 50 days after Passover, and is called _________ in Christianity.
The proclamation, or _____________ (the message or proclamation of the early Christians, particularly Peter as he stood and proclaimed the gospel and Jesus as the Messiah)
A revelation; a prophetic vision of the destruction of evil and salvation of the righteous is found in the last book of the Bible and is known as an _________.
A convert to Christianity who receives instruction in preparation for baptism and entrance into the church is called a _________________.
Bishop of Rome and successor of the Apostle Peter according to the Roman Catholic tradition is called the ____
. Doctrine that God is a unity of three persons: the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is:
. Roman Emperor who ended persecution of Christians in the Empire and who created the model in which the church is ruled by the state, through the Christian emperor, as the form Christian civilization should take:
another term for the letters of Paul, Peter, James, Jude, and John in the Bible is called _______.
Those who insisted on teaching what the main body of Christians officially rejected were called ______.
The Council of Nicea was called in 325 CE by Constantine in order to seek unity among Christians and to combat in the main the teachings of _____________who taught that Christ was human not divine.
The Council of Chalcedon in 451 settled the question of Christ’s nature and dogmatically stated that Jesus Christ was fully ____ and fully ______.
divine and human
Wrote in his autobiography, Confessions, “For Thou made us for yourself, and our heart is restless until it repose in thee;” he also wrote “The City of God.”
Augustine Bishop of Hippo
The split between the Roman Catholic tradition and the Greek Orthodox tradition occurred in the year _______ CE
The monk and university professor who nailed his Ninety-five Theses to the door of the castle church at Wittenberg in 1517 calling for a debate over some abuses in the Catholic Church and initiated the Protestant Reformation.
Martin Luther
Of the seven sacraments held sacred by the Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches, the two sacraments kept by the Protestants after the Reformation were ____________
Eucharist (Lord’s Supper) and Baptism.
A Pharisee, convert to Christianity, who wrote 13 epistles included in the canon of New Testament, and was the first great missionary to the Gentiles:

the apostle _______.
The New Testament was written in
The view that the task of Christianity is to transform every society into a Christian society comprising two branches: Church and State is called _____________.
The term used in your text to describe some beliefs and practices of a religion that are Christianized versions of indigenous pre-Christian religious elements is:
Form of pietist Christianity that emphasizes the centrality of the “born again” experience of spiritual transformation rather than dogma as the key to Christian authenticity and union among Christians in all its diversity is _________.
No matter how different interpretations of Islam are, the practice that unites all Muslims is the _______.
Five Pillars
Arabic word for God:
Islamic law as found in the Quran; also means the “right” or “straight” path:
“Islam” means:
submission or surrender
“The disaster,” as it is known in Muslim literature and consciousness, that triggered a period of doubt and self-examination in the 1970s was about:
losing major territories, including Jerusalem, to Israel
The ulama are
Islamic religious scholars
Five Pillars of Faith
Shahada (creed)

Salat (pray 5 times a day)

Zakat (almsgiving or charity)

Sawm (fast during Ramadan)

Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime, if one is able)
Traditionally, on Fridays the noon prayer is a congregational prayer that takes place in a _____.
. Islamic law allows a man to marry _ wives, only if he can support and treat them all equally.
______ is the name of the mystical tradition in Islam.
______ is considered the sacred language of Islam in which Muslims pray and recite the Quran.
The emigration from Mecca to Yathrib/Medina in 622 CE/yr 1 became the most significant event in Islamic history and is called the ____ in Arabic.
Hijra (hegira)
The ________ consists of hundreds of thousands of stories, or hadiths, about Muhammad and the largest sect of Islam is named for it. (Sunnis)
The founder of Islam is ________.
According to Qur’an, the “People of the Book” included ____ and _______.
Jews and Christians
. When Muhammad was born, the orientation of the tribes in Arabia was on the world, with little belief in an afterlife or divine judgment and was characterized by_______________.
Of the over 1 billion Muslims in the world today, most are _______________.
The Islamic world has witnessed upheaval and renewal since the nineteenth century as a result of European ____________.
Wahhabi Islam, the official form of Islam in ___________, is among the most ultraconservative interpretations of Islam
Saudi Arabia
Islamic modernist reformers emphasized the need for Ijihad, or the _________, of Islamic law.
_____ bombing is a particularly contentious issue among Muslim religious authorities, particularly involving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Which of the following is NOT one of the Five Pillars of Islam?
Sunnis and Shi’as split due to a
difference in opinion over who should lead the Muslim community following Muhammad’s death
The pilgrimage to Mecca is called
The ________ Dynasty is considered the golden age or cultural peak of Islam.