Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/27

Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the positive regulators of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase-1)?

Glucagon: Indirect and allosteric (through F26BP)

What are the negative regulators of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase-1)?

AMP: Direct and allosteric


Insulin: Indirect and allosteric (through F26BP)


F26BP: Direct and allosteric

What are the negative regulators of carnitine acyl-transferase 1?

Malonyl-CoA: Direct and allosteric




Malonyl-CoA is the product of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase

What are the positive regulators of Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1?

N-acetylglutamate: Direct and allosteric


Arginine: Indirect and allosteric (through N-acetylglutamate)

What are the positive regulators of Acetyl-CoA carboxylase?

Insulin: Indirect and covalent and transcriptional (indirect through PP2A, transcriptional via ChREBP)


Citrate: Direct and allosteric

What are the negative regulators of Acetyl-CoA carboxylase?

Glucagon, epinephrine: Indirect and covalent (through PKA)


AMP: Indirect and covalent (through AMPK)


Palmitoyl-CoA: Direct and allosteric

What are the positive regulators of glucokinase (hexokinase IV)?

Insulin: Indirect and transcriptional


Glucose: Indirect and through transport out of the nucleus into the cytosol (by a regulatory protein)

What are the negative regulators of glucokinase (hexokinase IV)?

Fructose 6-phosphate: Indirect and transport into the nucleus (by a regulatory protein)

What are the positive regulators of hexokinase I-III (not hexokinase IV)?

Insulin: Indirect and transcriptional


Glucose: Direct and allosteric

What are the negative regulators of hexokinase I - III (not hexokinase IV)?

Glucose 6-phosphate: Direct and allosteric

What are the positive regulators of Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex?

AMP: Indirect and covalent (through pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase)


CoA: Direct and allosteric


NAD+: Direct and allosteric

What are the negative regulators of Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex?

ATP: Indirect and covalent (through pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase)


Acetyl-CoA: Direct and allosteric


NADH: Direct and allosteric


Fatty acids: Direct and allosteric

What are the positive regulators of Pyruvate carboxylase?

Acetyl-CoA: Direct and allosteric

Activators of Glycogen synthase. Is it direct/indirect, covalent/allosteric?

Glucose-6-phosphate. Indirect covalent through PP1 AND allosteric directly


PP1: Direct and covalent


Insulin: Indirect and covalent by two ways (via PP1 and GSK3)


Glucose: Indirect and covalent (through PP1)





Inhibitors of Glycogen synthase. Is it direct/indirect, covalent/allosteric?

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3): Direct and covalent


AMPK: Direct and covalent


Casein kinase II: Direct and covalent


Glucagon, epinephrine: Indirect and covalent

Activators of PFK-1 (phosphofructokinase 1). Are they indirect/direct, covalent/allosteric?

F26BP: Direct and allosteric


AMP: Direct and allosteric


Insulin: Indirect and allosteric (through F26BP)





Inhibitors of PFK-1. Are they indirect/direct, covalent/allosteric?

Citrate: Direct and allosteric


ATP: Direct and allosteric


Glucagon: Indirect and allosteric (through F26BP)





Activators of P1,6-BPase-1?

Glucagon: Indirect and allosteric, through F26BP

Inhibitors of P1,6-BPase-1?

F26BP: Direct and allosteric


Insulin: Indirect and allosteric (through F26BP)


AMP: Direct and allosteric

Activators of Glycogen phosphorylase?

Glucagon: Indirect and covalent (only in liver. Through PKA and phosphorylase kinase)


Epinephrine: Indirect and covalent (only in muscle. Through PKA and phosphorylase kinase)


Phosphorylase B kinase: Direct and covalent


[AMP] ↑: Direct and allosteric (only in muscle)





Inhibitors of Glycogen phosphorylase?

Glucose: Direct and allosteric


PP1: Direct AND indirect and covalent (indirectly through phosphorylase kinase)


Insulin: Indirect and covalent acts via PP1




They often ask about which regulator that regulates glycogen phosphorylase both directly and indirectly.

Pyruvate kinase: Activators?

F16BP: Direct and allosteric


Insulin: Indirect and covalent and transcriptional (indirect via PP1 only in liver, transcriptional via ChREBP)


ADP: Direct and allosteric

Inhibitors of Pyruvate kinase?

ATP: Direct and allosteric


Alanine: Direct and allosteric


Acetyl-CoA: Direct and allosteric


Long chain fatty acids: Direct and allosteric




In the liver:


Glucagon: Indirect and covalent (via PKA)

HMG-CoA synthase regulation? (Both activators and inhibitors)

Activator:


Acetyl-CoA: Direct and allosteric




Inhibitor:


Succinyl-CoA: Direct and covalent





HMG-CoA reductase activators?

Insulin: Indirect and covalent (via PP2A)


Low intracellular cholesterol: Indirect and transcriptional (via SREBP and SCAP)



HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors?

Glucagon: Indirect and covalent (via PKA)


AMP: Indirect and covalent (via AMPK)


High intracellular cholesterol: Indirect and proteolysis (through Insig)

What are the activators of PP2A?

Insulin: Indirect and covalent (through ISK)


Glucose: Direct and allosteric


Xylulose 5-phosphate: Direct and allosteric