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82 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the partial pressure of O2 in atmospheric air?
159 mmHg
What is the partial pressure of CO2 in atmospheric air?
0.228 mmHg
What is the partial pressure of water vapor at 37 degrees C and 100% relative humidity (RH)?
47 mmHg
What is the partial pressure of O2 in the lung's airways?
the same as relative humidity (159 mmHg)
VE is the product of what parameters?
VT x f
What is the amount of CO2 produced under normal resting conditions?
Oxygen consumption is the amount of O2 used by the body (about 250 mL/min at rest). O2 use increases with exercise. O2 consumption is NOT _____ related to CO2 production.
A sample of blood has been taken from a patient's pulmonary artery. What mixed venous O2 saturation value (SvO2) would indicate that a patient is normal?
Your patient has a chronic respiratory disorder and vasoconstriction of her pulmonary vascular system. What is the chief control over this vasoconstriction?
low PaO2
A condition that will cause hypoxic hypoxia is:
hypoventilation from an overdose of a sedative medication
A pulmonary artery (Swan-Ganz) catheter can be used for measuring cardiac output, left atrial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, but not (____).
arterial blood sampling
Which of the following statements are true of the bronchial vasculature? (I. Bronchial systemic venous blood drains directly into the pulmonary veins/ II. O2 poor blood mixes with freshly oxygenated pulmonary veinous blood on its way to the left ventricle/ III. Bronchial blood flow is only 1-2% of the cardiac output/ IV. The anatomical shunt from this source is usually approximately 10%)
all are correct except shunt is 2%
Which of the following statements are true of the pulmonary circulation? (I. it is a low-resistance system compared with the systemic circulation/ II. its pressures are lower even though it recieves the same cardiac output as the systemic circulation/ III. the resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary circulation is approximately one fourth as great as it is in the systeThe resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary circulation is approximately one tenth as great as it is in the systemic circulation)
all are correct except III. (pressure is one fourth)
Which pressure is commonly used as a clinical indicator of left ventricular function?
Ejection pressure
Which technique is useful in evaluating cardiac output?
What is the normal value for PVR?
96 dynes.sec.cm-5
What is the normal value for systemic vascular resistance(SVR)?
1456 dynes.sec.cm-5
In what groups of patients has Nitrous Oxide been especially beneficial in treating pulmonary hypertension?
What is the most important chemical factor causing pulmonary vasoconstriction?
Alveolar hypoxia
Which of the following will INHIBIT HPV? (alkalemia, nitric oxide & prostacyclin, alpha-adrenergic blockers, hypercapnia)
all of them!
The HPV response is often diminished in patients with the following conditions EXCEPT: (smoke inhalation, ARDS, Sepsis &Emphysema)
All of the following are some of the alternatives to inhaled NO for lowering PRV, except: (Prostacycli/ PGI2, Sildenafil/viagra, Nitroprusside & Captopril)
What is the name of the force tending to move fluid into the capillary?
Oncotic pressure
What are causes of Pulmonary Edema?
increased hydrostatic pressure, increased capillary permeability, decreased plasma oncotic pressure & insufficient lymphatic drainage
What is a good example of edema associated with a high PCWP (wedge pressure)?
Cardiogenic pulmonary edema
Pneumonia, sepsis &___ are conditions associated with noncardiac pulmonary edema.(note: mitral stenosis is not)
oxygen toxicity
which of the following are true of the respiratory exchange ratio?
Its is the raitio of the alveolar CO2 excretion to the blood oxygen uptake.
It`s normal value is normally approximately 0.8
What is the PAO2 of a person breathing room air at sea leval with a PACO2 = to 40 mm hg and an R = to 0.8?
Approximately 100 mmHG
Which of the following statements apply to Fick`s law?
Gas diffusion increases with increased se membrane surface are.
Gas diffusion increases with increased pressure gradient.
Gas diffusion decreases if membrane thickness increases
Whencombine Grahm`s law and Henry`s law how many times faster dose carbon dioxide diffuse across alveolar capillary memberane than oxygen?
20 times
Diffusion of which of the following gases will be limited by a defective alveolar capillary membrane?
When are patients with thickend alveolar capillary membrane most likely to show evidence of oxygen diffusion impairment?
During exercise
If oxygen equilibium between the alveolus and capillary nerve occurs because of thickened membranes oxygen transfer is then truly
diffusion limited
Why is CO the ideal gas for measuring the extent to which the alveolar capillary membrane itself impeds the diffusion rate?
Blood can absorb CO at a greater rate than Co can diffus across the alveolar capillary membrane
What is the most common cause of resting hypoxemia?
A mismatch between ventilation and diffusion
what is the standar accepted normal DLCO range for heathy adults in an upright position?
20 to 30 mL min mm hg
How do you obtain the diffusion capacity for oxygen?
It is obtained by multiplying DLCO by 1.23
The DLCO is useful in differentiating emphysema from what other obstructive diseases?
Regional factors affecting the distribution of gas in the normal lungs result in which of the following?
More ventlation gose to the base of the lungs periphery
What is the gas that is wasted during normal ventilation called?
dead space ventilation
a patient has a VT of 625ml and a physiological dead space of 275 ml and is breathing at a frequence of 16 per min. what is the alveolar ventilation. (VA)
5600ml/min (625-275*16=5600VT)
Blockage of the pulmonary arterial circulation to a portion of the lungs would cause which of the following?
increase in the alveolar dead space
Given a constance carbon dioxide production how will change the level of VA affect the PACO2?
An increase in Va will decrease PACO2
On what dose the movement of gases between the lungs and the body tissues mainly depend
gaseous diffusion
the higher PCO2 levels are found in what location?
Which of the following are true regarding the PACO2?
directly proportional to the whole body carbon dioxing production. inversely proporinal to the alveolar ventilation (VA)
normally maintained at about 35 to 45 mm HG
Calculate the approximate PAO2 given the following conditions (assume R= 0.8) FIO2 = .40, PB= 770 mm HG PACO2 = 31mm HG
250 ( 770mm HG -47=723*.40-31/0.8)
A normal person breathing 100% oxygen at see leval would have a PAO2 of about what level?
670 (PAO2=760-47=713*1-40=670
which of the following bestrepresent the partial pressure of all gases in the normally ventilated and perfused alveolus when breathing room air at sea level?
PO2=100mm hg PCO2 =40 mmHG PN2 =573mmhg ph2o=47
In a person breathing room air ( and with all else being normal) if the alveolar PCO2 rises from 40 to 70mmhg what would you exspect?
PAO2 to fall about 30mmhg
Assuming a constant FIO2 and carbon dioxide production which of the following statements are correcr?
Increses in VA decreases the PACO2 and increses the PAO2
What is the highest PAO2 one could expect to observe in an individual breathing room air at sea level?
110 to 120mmHG (120 highest)
Which of the following conditions must exist for the gas to move between the alveolus and the pulmonary cappillary?
difference in the partial pressures (pressure gradient)
Which of the following values corresponds most closely to the normal PO2 and PACO2 in the mixed venous blood returening to the lungs from the rt side to the lft side of the hart?
PO2=40 mmHG PCO2=46mmHG
Which of the following gases would diffuse fastern across the alveolar capillary membrane?
carbon dioxide
the time available for diffusion in the lung is mainly a function of which of the following?
rate of pulmonary blood flow
what is the minimum amount of blood must take for pulmonary capillary transit for equilibration of oxygen to occur across the alveolar capillary membrane?
0.25 sec
what is the normal range of PAO2-PaO2 for healthy young adults breathing room air?
5 to 10 mm HG
an area of the lungs has no blood flow but is normally ventilated. Whicj of the following statements are true about this area?
The alveolar gas is like air (PO2=150 PCO2= 0) the aera represents alveolar dead space the Vq is elevated
regarding pulmonary blood flow in the upright lung which of the following statements is true?
The bases receive 20times more blood flow than the apexes
How is the vast majority of oxygen carried in the blood?
chemically combined with HB
Under normal physiologic circumstances how many milliliters of oxygen are capable of combing with HB?
1.340 ml
Why is it necessary to keep the patient `s PaO2 greater than 60?
A leval of 60 mm HG marks the begining of the steep part of O2 HB dissociation curve
given the following blood parameters compute the total oxygen content (dissolved = HbO2) of the blood in ml/dl Hb =18 PO2 = 40 mm HG SO2=73%
given the following blood parameters compute the total oxygen content (dissolved + HbO2) of the blood in ml/dl HB=16 PO2=625 Hg SO2= 100%
What is the approximate normal CaO2 - CvO2 in a heathy adult at rest?
5 ml/dl
According to the Bohr effect whenn the ph drops (blood becomes more acidic) what happens?
the affanity of HB for O2 decreases the HB saturation for a given PO2 falls
compared to normal levels a shift in the HBO2 curve to the rt has wich of the followingeffects?
the affinity of hb for o2 decreases the hb saturation for a given po2 falls
what rolw dose Bohr effect play in oxygen gtransport?
enhabces oxygen delivery to tissue and oxygen picks up at lungs
in wich of the folowing conditions will erythrocyte concentration of 2, 3, DPG be decreased?
banked blood
The affinity of HB for carbonmonoxide CO is approximately how many times greater than its affinity for oxygen?
200 times greater
In which of the following forms is carbon dioxide transported by the blood?
chemically combined with proteins ionized as bicarbonate simple physical solution
the greatest percentage of carbon dioxide transported in the blood occurs as which of the following?
Why is the presence of carbonic anhydrase in RBCs so crucial for carbon dixide transport?
drives the hydrolysis reaction that forms HCO3
when a HB molecule accumulates excessive amounts of HCO3 it is expelled from the cell in the exchange of CL- what is this called?
hambergger phenomenon
When HB saturation with oxygen is high less carbon dioxide is carried in the blood what is this relationship called?
Haldane effect
which of the following equations best describes oxgen delivery to the tissues?
arterial oxygen content x cardiac output
hypoxia is best defined as a condition in which what occurs?
Tissue oxygen delivery is inadequate to meet cellular needs
an abnormal metabolic state in which the tissue are unable to utilize the oxygen made available to them best describes which of the following?
What is the most common cause of hypoxemia?
V/Q miss match
what is the most important component in the oxygen transport system?
What dose V/Q mismatch have the biggest impact on?