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2259 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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List the lungworms in the following species:
Pig:
Metastrongylus apri, M. salmi
Sheep, Goat:
Dictyocaulus filaria, Protostrongylus rufescens, Muellerius capillaris
Horse, Donkey, Mule:
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi
Cattle, Ox:
Dictyocaulus viviparus
Fox, raccoon:
Crenosoma vulpis
Dog:
Filaroides osleri, Angiostrongylus vasorum
Cat:
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Filaroides rostratus
Rat:
Angiostrongylus cantonensis
New World monkey:
Filaroides cebus
Mink:
Aeulurostrongylus pridhami
Hedgehog:
Crenosoma striatus
Opossum:
Capillaria didelphis
List the parasite and parasitic associated neoplasms
Spirocerca lupi: Esophageal sarcoma, osteosarcoma (dog)
Cysticercus fasciolaris (Taenia taeniaformis): Hepatic sarcoma (rat)
What causes fibrinous polyserositis in pigs?
Streptococcus suis
Mycoplasma hyorhinis
Hemophilus parasuis
List what the neutrophil primary granules (lysosomes) contain
Myeloperoxidase – respiratory burst
Bacterial-permeability-inducing protein
Lysozymes – degrade bacterial products
Elastase – degrade bacterial products
Acid hydrolases
Neutral proteases
Napthol AS-D choloracetate esterase
Beta glucuronidase, cathepsin B – hydrolases
Defensins – kill gram + bacteria, attack plasma membranes
List what the neutrophil secondary granules (lysosomes) contain
Lysozyme
Collagenase
Cathelicidine
Apolactoferrin
Plasminogen activator
Lactoferrin (iron binding protein)
List what the monocyte granules (lysosomes)
Peroxidase
Acid hydrolases
Alpha-naphthyl acetate
Butyrate esterases
Aryl sulfatase
Lysozyme
List the intracellular bacteria
Lawsonia
Mycobacteria
Rhodococcus
Yersinia
Brucella
Clostridium
List intrahistiocytic fungi and protozoal organisms
Trypanosoma cruzi – kinetoplast parallel to nucleus
Leishmania sp. (donovani) – kinetoplast perpendicular to nucleus (lollipop)
Toxoplasma gondii
Neospora caninum
Histoplasma capsulatum
Cryptococcus neoformans
Sporothrix schenckii
Blastomyces dermatitidis
Candida sp.
Coccidioides immitis
Cytauxzoon felis
List the causes of eosinophilia in horses
Habronemia
Pythium
Mast cell tumor
Culicoides
Equine eosinophilic granuloma (Equine nodular collagenolytic granuloma)
List the Eimeria species & location (A Nasty Mean Mastiff Bit Tom)
Acervulina – duodenum
Necatrix – duodenum
Maxima – jejunum
Mitis – ileum
Brunetti – ileum, rectum
Tenella - cecum
List the bacilli (YAACCSS)
Yersinia
Actinobacillus
Actinomyces
Corynebacterium
Clostridium
Staphylococcus
Streptococcus
List the genuses in the family Poxviridae
Orthopoxvirus
Parapoxvirus
Capripoxvirus
Avipoxvirus
Leporipoxvirus
Suipoxvirus
Unclassified
List the viruses in the genus Orthopoxvirus
Vaccinia
Variola – Smallpox
Ectromelia – Mousepox
Monkeypox
Cowpox
Buffalopox
Rabbitpox
Camelpox
Raccoonpox
List the viruses in the genus Parapoxvirus
Contagious ovine ecthyma, orf
Bovine pustular stomatitis
Contagious ecthyma, chamois
Pseudocowpox
Sealpox
List the viruses in the genus Capripoxvirus
Sheep-pox
Goatpox
Lumpy skin disease of cattle
List the viruses in the genus Avipoxvirus
Fowlpox
Canarypox
Juncopox
Pigeonpox
Quailpox
Sparrowpox
Starlingpox
Turkeypox
List the viruses in the genus Leporipoxvirus
Myxoma of rabbits
Hare fibroma
Rabbit (Shope) fibroma
Squirrel fibroma
List the viruses in the genus Suipoxvirus
Swinepox
List the viruses in the unclassified category
Carnivorepox
Elephantpox
Molluscum contagiosum of human
Yaba monkey tumor pox
Tanapox
Name some of the important clostridial diseases & what they cause
C. botulinum: flaccid paralysis > respiratory paralysis
C. chauvoei: Blackleg, necrotizing myositis w/gas production
C. colinum: ulcerative enteritis, liver necrosis (quail, turkeys, chickens); Quail dz.
C. difficile: enterocolitis (hamsters, rabbits, guinea pigs, swine); naturally occuring (cattle, horses)
C. haemolyticum: bacillary hemoglobinuria; Redwater (cattle. Hepatic damage (fluke migration) > infarction > necrosis > hemolysis > death. Mottled kidneys, deep red urine.
C. novyi: infectious necrotic hepatitis (Black dz.); Malignant edema
C. perfringens: enterotoxemia; Lamb dysentery; Pulpy kidney dz. (sheep); Malignant edema
C. piliforme: (Tyzzer's dz): G-, affects liver, heart, cecum; necrosis
C. septicum: Malignant edema, Braxy (abomasal lesion d/t eating frosted grass)
C. spiroforme: enteritis & colitis (rabbits, guinea pigs, foals)
C. tetani: tetanus in domestic animals; neurotoxin
C. villosum: cat abscesses d/t fights and cat pleurisy; pyothorax
Name the different types of C. perfringens, the toxins & what they cause
Type A: Toxins: Alpha; malignant edema
Type B: Toxins: Beta, alpha, epsilon; dysentery in lambs, enterotoxemia
Type C: Toxins: Beta, alpha; struck in sheep, necrotic enteritis in pigs
Type D: Toxins: Epsilon, alpha; enterotoxemia
Type E: Toxins: Iota, alpha; necrotic enteritis
Name the different types of C novyi, and what they cause
Type A: Malignant edema (cattle, sheep); Bighead in rams
Type B: Black’s dz.
Type C: Osteomyelitis in buffalo
Name the nematode groups
Rhabditoids (small)
Oxyurids
Ascarids
Strongyles (True strongyles, trichostrongyles, metastrongyles)
Spirurids
Filarids
Aphasmids
Name the viruses that form intranuclear inclusions
Herpesvirus
Adenovirus
Parvovirus
Morbillivirus
Cytomegalovirus
Name the viruses that form intracytoplasmic inclusions
Poxvirus
Paramyxovirus
Reovirus
Rhabdovirus
Morbillivirus
Cytomegalovirus
Rabies virus
Name the viruses that form intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions
Morbillivirus: K-9 distemper, measles
Cytomegalovirus: Porcine
Name the viruses that cause syncytial cell formation
Herpesvirus (some)
Paramyxovirus
Morbillivirus (Paramyxovirus)
Pneumovirus (Paramyxovirus)
Lentivirus
Sendai virus (Paramyxovirus)
Mouse hepatitis virus (Coronavirus)
Porcine circovirus 2 (Circovirus)
Name the DNA viruses capable of inducing tumors
Polyomavirus
Papillomavirus
Adenovirus
Herpesvirus
Hepatitis B-like virus
Name the RNA viruses capable of inducing tumors
Retrovirus (oncornavirus)
Name the DNA viruses
Poxvirus
Asfarvirus
Iridovirus
Herpesvirus
Adenovirus
Papovavirus
Parvovirus
Circovirus
Hepadnavirus
Name the RNA viruses
Retrovirus
Reovirus
Birnavirus (Infectious bursal dz.; Infectious pancreatic necrosis of fish)
Paramyxovirus
Rhabdovirus
Filovirus
Bornavirus
Orthomyxovirus
Bunyavirus
Arenavirus
Coronavirus
Arterivirus (PRRS; EAV; Lactate Dehydrogenase Elevating Virus of Mice; Simian Hemorrhagic Fever virus
Picornavirus
Calicivirus
Astrovirus
Togavirus
Flavivirus
The cytoskeleton consists of what components?
Microtubules (25nm)
Thick myosin filaments (15nm)
Intermediate filaments (10nm)
Thin actin filaments (6-8nm)
Nonpolymerized & nonfilamentous forms
Name the intermediate filaments and where are they found?
Keratin – epithelial
Desmin – muscle
Neurofilaments – neurons
Glial – astrocytes
Vimentin – connective tissue
What are the four classes of chemokines, what are the types, and what’s their action?
CXC – alpha; IL-8; attract: neutrophils
CC – beta; MCP1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), MIP1alpha (MO inflam protein 1alpha), Eotaxin; RANTES (Regulated And Normal T-cell Expressed & Secreted); attract: monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes
C – gamma; lymphotaxin; attracts: lymphocytes
CX3C – Fractalkine (membrane bound & soluble); attract: monocytes, T-cells
What nonenzymatic & enzymatic systems contribute to free radical system activation?
Antioxidants: Vit A, Vit E, Vit C, glutathione
Iron & Copper
Enzymes: Catalase in peroxisomes; Superoxide dismutase – manganese in mitochondria & copper-zinc in the cytosol; Glutathione peroxidase
Name some agents & their classification (if applicable) that cause oral vesicles, erosions or ulcerations
Vesicular stomatitis – Vesiculovirus, Rhabdovirus
Bluetongue – Orbivirus, Reovirus
Contagious ecthyma – Parapoxvirus, Poxvirus
Bovine papular stomatitis – Parapoxvirus, Poxvirus
Foot & Mouth Dz. – Aphthovirus, Picornavirus
Bovine viral diarrhea/Mucosal disease – Pestivirus, Flavivirus
Malignant catarrhal fever – Alcephaline HV-1, Ovine HV-2; Caprine herpesvirus
Rinderpest – Morbillivirus, Paramyxovirus
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (GI form) in calves – Bovine HV-1, Herpesvirus
What etiological agents, classify, cause vesicular disease?
Foot & mouth disease virus – Aphthovirus, Picornavirus
Swine vesicular disease virus – Enterovirus, Picornavirus
Vesicular exanthema of swine/San Miguel sea lion viruses – Calicivirus, Calicivirus
Vesicular stomatitis virus – Vesiculovirus, Rhabdovirus
What are the viruses, hosts and diseases caused by papillomaviruses?
Bovine type 1; Cattle; Cutaneous fibropapilloma; Equine; Equine sarcoid
Bovine type 2; Cattle; Cutaneous fibropapilloma; Horse; Equine sarcoid
Bovine type 3; Cattle; Cutaneous papilloma
Bovine type 4; Cattle; GI tract papilloma
Bovine type 5; Cattle; Teat fibropapilloma
Bovine type 6; Cattle; Teat papilloma
Equine papillomavirus; Equine; Cutaneous papilloma
K-9 oral papillomavirus; Canine; Oral papilloma
Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus; Cottontails, Domestics, Hares; Cutaneous papilloma, +/- SCC
Rabbit oral papillomavirus; Domestic rabbits; Oral papilloma
Deer papillomavirus; Deer; Cutaneous fibroma
Ovine papillomavirus; Sheep; Cutaneous papilloma
Caprine papillomavirus; Goat; Cutaneous papilloma, Mammary papilloma
Porcine papillomavirus; Swine; Genital papilloma
Name some important Corynebacterium and what principal disease they cause
C. renale, C. pilosum; Cystitis in cows
C. cystitidis; Hemorrhagic cystitis & pyelonephritis in cows
C. bovis; Dermatitis in nude mice
C. suis; Pyelonephritis & cystitis in cows
C. kutscheri; Pseudotuberculosis in rodents
C. pseudotuberculosis; Ulcerative lymphangitis & equine pectoral abscesses; caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats
List some important Actinobacillus sp. and what disease they cause
A. capsulatus; Arthritis, septicemia in rabbits
A. equuli; Septicemia in foals
A. lignieresi; Wooden tongue, lymphadenitis in cows
A. pleuropneumoniae
A. seminis; Epididymitis & periorchitis in rams
A. salpingitidis; Salpingitis, peritonitis, airsacculitis, pneumonia in birds
A. suis; Septicemia, purulent inflam, pneumonia, mastitis in pigs
List some important Rickettsial sp. and diseases they cause
R. ricketsii; Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Coxiella burnetii
E. canis; Equine ehrlichiosis
E. platys; K-9 infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia
Neorickettsia risticii; Potomac Horse Fever; Equine ehrlichial abortion
E. equi; Equine ehrlichiosis
E. ewingii; K-9 granulocytic ehrlichoiosis
Name the Anaplasmataceae agent(s) in the following species
Cat:
Mycoplasma haemofelis; Eperythrozoon felis
Dog:
M. haemocanis
Cattle:
M. wenyonii; Anaplasma marginale; Paranaplasma caudatum
Goat, sheep:
A. ovis, E. ovis
Avian:
Aegyptianella pullorum
Swine:
M. haemosuis; E. parvum; E. suis
Mice, rats:
M. haemomuris; E. coccoides
Primates:
Hemobartonella-like organism
Name the Babesia sp. in the following species, which are important in the US?
Cattle:
B. bovis
Horse:
B. equi, B. caballi
Dog:
B. canis; B. gibsoni
Sheep, goat:
B. ovis
Cat:
B. feli; B. cati; B. herpailuri; B. pantherae
Pig:
B. trautmanni
Mice:
B. hylomysci; B. rodhaini, B. microti
What does Mycoplasma haemofelis cause in domestic & wild cats?
Feline infectious anemia
What does Heomproteus sp. cause in avian species?
Avian malaria
Name some herpesviruses of birds, what species is affected and what the disease?
Anatid HV-1 (alpha); Duck plague
Gallid HV-1 (alpha); Chickens; Infectious laryngotracheitis
Gallid HV-2 (alpha); Chickens; Marek's Dz.
Budgerigar HV; Budgerigars
Columbid HV-1; Pigeons, owls, falcons; Pigeon inclusion body; Hepatitis/esophagitis
Falconid HV-1; Falcon; Falcon inclusion body Dz.
Name the parasite, species affected, organ affected and neoplasm cause by parasite
Spirocerca lupi; Canine; Esophagus; Sarcoma (Fibro & Osteo)
Clonorchis sinensis; Feline; Liver; Bile duct carcinoma
Cysticercus fasciolaris; Liver; Hepatocellular carcinoma
What are the 10 layers of the retina?
Inner limiting membrane
Optic nerve fiber layer
Ganglion cell layer
Inner plexiform layer
Inner nuclear layer
Outer plexiform layer
Outer nuclear layer
Outer limiting membrane
Rods & cones (photoreceptor layer)
Pigmented retinal epithelium
What structures make up the uvea?
Iris
Ciliary body
Choroid
What structures comprise the anterior uvea?
Iris
Ciliary body
What are the water-soluble vitamins?
Vit. B
Vit. C
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
Vit. A
Vit. D
Vit. E
Vit. K
List the parvovirus for the following species?
Cat:
Cat: Feline panleukopenia
Mink:
Mink: Mink enteritis virus; Aleutian disease virus
Raccoon:
Raccoon: Raccoon parvovirus
Dog:
Dog: Canine parvovirus 2; Minute virus of canines
Cattle:
Cattle: Bovine parvovirus
Swine:
Swine: Porcine parvovirus
Rat:
Rat: Rat virus and H-1
Hamster:
Hamster: Minute virus of mice
Mice:
Mice: Minute virus of mice
Fox:
Fox: Fox parvovirus
List the poxvirus induced tumors or tumor-like lesions, the host(s) and lesion
Myxomatosis virus; Sylvilagus (cottontail); Benign fibromas & Oryctolagus (domestic) rabbit; Malignant dermal mesenchymal tumors (affects other organs)
Shope rabbit fibroma virus; Cotton-tail and domestic rabbits; Dermal fibromas
Hare fibroma virus; Hares; Dermal fibromas
Squirrel fibroma virus; Grey squirrel, woodchucks; Dermal fibromas, rare fibrosarcomas w/mets
Yaba virus; Rhesus, cynomolgus, African green monkeys; Benign dermal mesenchymal tumors
Molluscum contagiosum; Horse; Benign epidermal papilloma-like lesions
Genital (papilloma) virus of swine; Male and female swine; Papillomatous lesions of the vaginal, vulvar, penile and prepucial mucosa
List the oncogenic herpesviruses, the host and neoplasm
Lucke renal adenocarcinoma; Renal adenocarcinoma
Marek's Dz. virus; Chickens; Neural lymphoma & viscerl involvement
Herpesvirus samiri; Squirrel monkey; Latent
Tamarin, owl and spider monkeys, domestic rabbits; Generalized T-cell lymphoma
Herpesvirus ateles; Spider monkey; Latent
Herpesvirus sylvilagus; Cottontail rabbit; Lymphoid hyperplasia & lymphoma
Epstein Barr virus; Cotton-top tamarin; Fatal B-cell lymphoma
Name the coagulation factors
I Fibrinogen
II Prothrombin
III Tissue factor (tissue thromboplastin)
IV Calcium
V Proaccelerin
VII Proconvertin
VIII Antihemophilic factor A
IX Christmas factor
X Stuart-Prower factor
XI Plasma thromboplastin antecedent
XII Hageman factor
XIII Fibrin stabilizing factor
List the subfamilies of herpesvirus and type of lesions
Alphaherpesvirus: cytocidal, causes necrosis
Betaherpesvirus: cytomegaly, intranuclear & occ. intracytoplasmic inclusions
Gammaherpesvirus: Lymphotropic for ‘B’ or ‘T’ cells
List the endosporulating fungi
Rhinosporidium
Coccidioides immitis
Prototheca
Chlorella
What is the model used to study MCF?
Rabbit
List the gammaherpesviruses
Bovine lymphotropic virus
Hippotragine herpesvirus - African antelopes (MCF related virus)
Herpesvirus of white-tailed deer
Caprine herpesvirus
Epstein-Barr virus
Herpesvirus saimiri (Saimiirine herpesvirus 2)
Herpesvirus ateles (Ateline herpesvirus 2)
Herpesvirus sylvilagus (Leporid herpesvirus 1)
Marmoset lymphsarcoma virus
List some coronaviruses in the following species
Mice:
Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) - respiratory and enteric forms
Rats:
Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV)
Pigs:
Respiratory coronavirus; Enteric coronavirus (TGEV); Hemagglutinating encephalomyelit svirus (HEV)
Chickens:
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)
Turkeys:
Bluecomb or transmissible enteritis coronavirus
List the circoviruses
Psittacine Beak and Feather Dz.
Chick Anemia Virus Dz.
Pigeon circovirus
Canary circovirus
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 - Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome)
List the causes of corneal edema
Trauma
Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (Pinkeye) - agent Moraxella bovis or M. bovoculi
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (BHV-1, alphaherpesvirus)
Congenital corneal opacity
MCF (alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, Ovine herpesvirus 2, gammaherpesvirus, herpesvirus)
List diseases that can cause vasculitis in cattle and wild ruminants
Viral: BVD (pestivirus,flavivirus); Bluetongue (orbivirus,reovirus); Adenoviral hemorrhagic dz.; MCF (alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, Ovine herpesvirus 2, gammaherpesvirus, herpesvirus)
Bacterial: Salmonella, Hemophilus somnus
Mycotic: Phycomycetes, aspergillus
Parasitic: Elaphora schneideri
Immune-mediated: Polyarteritis nodosa, drug-induced hypersensitivity
List dzs that cause inflamm, erosion & ulcerations of the nasal & alimentary tracts
BVD (pestivirus, flavivirus)
Bluetongue (orbivirus, reovirus)
Epizootic hemorrhagic Dz. (orbivirus, reovirus)
Rinderpest (morbillivirus, paramyxovirus)
Vesicular dzs.: FMD (aphthovirus); Vesicular stomatitis (vesiculovirus, rhabdovirus)
Caustic agents
Mycotoxins
MCF (alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, Ovine herpesvirus 2, gammaherpesvirus, herpesvirus)
List agents that can cause neurologic signs in turkeys
Newcastle Dz. (rubulavirus, paramyxovirus)
Aspergillus
Vitamin E deficiency
Salmonella enterica sub. Arizonae
List fungal or algal agents that cause intraocular inflammation
Blastomyces dermatitidis
Histoplasma capsulatum
Coccidioides immitis
Prototheca zopfii (algal)
Aspergillus terreus
Crytococcus neoformans
Candida
List the cause of retinal dysplasia in the following species
Cattle:
BVD (pestivirus, flavivirus) - fetal viral infection between day 79 & 150
Sheep:
Bluetongue (orbivirus, reovirus)
Cats:
Feline panleukopenia virus (feline parvovirus, parvovirus); Feline leukemia virus (oncornavirus, retrovirus); Vitamin A deficiency
Rd (retinal degen) mouse:
Inherited, autosomal blindness
What are the four main lesions for Collie Eye Anomaly?
Choroidal hypoplasia
Coloboma
Retinal detachment
Intraocular hemorrhage
List the causes of cataracts
Galactose-induced
Hypocalcemia
Cattle: BVD (pestivirus, flavivirus) - in utero infection
Sows: Aminoglycoside antibiotics, anthelminitic hygromycin B
Fish: Sun-light induced; nematode (Diplostomum sp.)
Dwarf rabbit: Encephalitozoon cuniculi
Diabetes mellitus
List bacteria that can cause pyogranulomatous inflammation
Arcanobacter pyogenes
Actinomyces bovis (lumpy jaw)
Mycobacterium sp.
Staphylococcus aures
Nocardia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Actinobacillus lignieresii
List the causes of necrotizing lymphadenitis, splenitis & hepatitis in lab animals & animal most affected
Clostridium piliforme (Tyzzer's Dz): mice, gerbils
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yersiniosis/paratuberculosis): Guinea pigs
Salmonella sp.: Guinea pigs, mice, rats
Yersinia pestis (bubonic plague): Rats, squirrels
Francisella tularensis (Tularemia): wild rabbits, rodents
List differentials for cutaneous lymphangitis in the horse
Glanders: Burkholderia mallei
Meliodosis: Burkholderia pseudomallei
Epizootic lymphangitis: Histoplasma farciminosum
Ulcerative lymphangitis: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
Strangles: Streptococcus equi
Sporothrix schenckii
List significant immunodeficiencies in horses
SCID
Failure of passive transport
Agammaglobulinemia
Selective IgM deficiency
Immunodeficiency, anemia and ganglionopathy in Fell ponies
List the arteriviruses for the following species
Horse:
Equine Arteritis Virus
Porcine:
Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive syndrome
Rodents:
Lactate Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus of Mice
Macaques:
Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus
List differentials for "Turkey egg kidney"
ASF (asfarvirus)
CSF (pestivirus, flavivirus)
Salmonella sp.
List gross rule-outs for CSF
Salmonella cholerasuis
Streptococcus suis
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (acute)
Haemophilus parasuis
Herpesvirus suis (alphaherpesvirus) Pseudorabies
Eperythrozoon suis
ASF (asfarvirus)
List the pestiviruses
CSF
BVD
Border Dz (hairy shaker lamb)
List agents that cause bursal atrophy
Physiologic atrophy #1
Chronic Marek's Dz (gallid herpesvirus 2, alphaherpesvirus, herpesvirus)
Chick Anemia Virus (avian circovirus, circovirus)
Infectious bursal dz. virus of fowl (avibirnavirus, birnavirus)
List agents that cause lymphoid necrosis in the bursa
Newcastle's Dz. virus (rubulavirus, paramyxovirus)
Duck plague virus (alphaherpesvirus, herpesvirus)
Psittacine beak and feather dz. (avian circovirus, circovirus)
Infectious bursal dz. virus of fowl (avibirnavirus, birnavirus)
List the birnaviruses
Infectious bursal dz. virus of fowl (avibirnavirus, birnavirus)
Infectious pancreatic necrosis of fish (aquabirnavirus, birnavirus)
List the oncogenic herpesviruses
NHP: H. ateles, H. saimiri, H. papio
Rabbit: H. sylvilagus
Frog: Ranid herpesvirus 1, gammaherpesvirus (Lucke's virus)
Pinnipeds: Otarine herpesvirus 1
Fowl: Gallid herpesvirus 2, alphaherpesvirus (Marek's dz. virus)
List the rule-outs for Pacheco's Dz. (Psittacid herpesvirus, alphaherpesvirus)
Chlamydophila psittaci
Salmonella typhimurium
Avian polyomavirus
Avian reovirus
Avian adenovirus
List the causes of splenic enlargment & marbling in pheasants
Marble spleen dz. virus (avian adenovirus group 2, adenovirus)
Marek's dz. virus (avian alphaherpesvirus 2, herpesvirus)
Lymphoid leukosis (avian leukosis virus, avian type C oncovirus, retrovirus)
Reticuloendotheliosis (avian type C oncovirus, retrovirus)
Agents that cause acute death d/t respiratory distress in fowl
Marble spleen dz. virus (avian adenovirus group 2, adenovirus)
Newcastle's Dz. virus (rubulavirus, paramyxovirus)
Avian influenza (influenza, orthomyxovirus)
Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (gallid herpesvirus 1, alphaherpesvirus, herpesvirus)
Avian infectious bronchitis (coronavirus, coronavirus)
List the avian adenovirus group 2 diseases
Marble spleen dz. virus
Hemorrhagic enteritis in turkeys
Chicken adenovirus group 2 splenomegaly
List the causes of lymphoid/Peyer's patch necrosis in puppies & young dogs
Canine coronavirus
Canine gastrointestinal hemorrhagic syndrome (assoc. w/C. perfringens)
Canine distemper virus (morbillivirus, paramyxovirus)
Canine parvovirus 2 (parvovirus, parvovirus)
List the causes of hemorrhagic diathesis in pups & young dogs
Heavy metal toxicity
Warfarin toxicity
Infectious canine hepatitis (canine adenovirus 1, mastadenovirus, adenovirus)
Shock gut (DIC)
Canine parvovirus 2 (parvovirus, parvovirus)
Differentials for anemia in horses
Purpura hemorrhagica
Red maple leaf toxicosis
Neonatal isoerythrolysis
Ehrlichiosis
Gastric ulcers
Parastitism
Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia
Equine infectious anemia virus (lentivirus, retrovirus)
List the lentiviruses (retrovirus)
Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)
Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV)
Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (Maedi-visna virus)
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)
Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)
Microscopic rule-out for lymphoid depletion in lymph nodes
Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (Porcine circovirus 2, circovirus)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (porcine arterivirus, arterivirus)
African swine fever virus (asfarvirus)
Classical swine fever virus (porcine pestivirus, flavivirus)
List the hemorrhagic fever viruses
Ebola virus (filovirus)
Marburg virus (filovirus)
Yellow fever virus (flavivirus, flavivirus)
Dengue fever virus (flavivirus, flavivirus)
Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (arterivirus)
Kyasanur Forest disease virus (flavivirus)
List causes of sudden death ruminants (bovine)
Bacillus anthracis
Clostridium chauvei (Blackleg)
Clostridium septicum (Malignant edema)
Clostridium hemolyticum (Bacillary hemoglobinuria)
Toxicity: Bracken fern; lead poisoning
Lightening strick, trauma, bloat
What are the four biochem pathways in mature erythrocytes?
Embden-Meyerhof pathway
Hexose-Monophosphate pathway
Methemoglobin reductase pathway
Luebering-Rapoport pathway
What is the function of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway do? What are the enzyme deficiencies and associated diseases?
Glycolysis generates ATP (membrane function & integrity) & NADH (reduce methhemoglobin)
Pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase > hemolytic anemia
What is the function of the hexose-monophosphate pathway? What are the enzyme deficiencies and sequelae? And what mineral is important?
Maintain glutathione in reduced state (oxidant neutralization)
Glucose-6-phasphate dehydrogenase (horse) > Heinz body formation, excess oxidant and anemia
Selenium
What is the function of the methemoglobin reductase pathway? What's the enzyme deficiency and sequelae?
Hemoglobin maintained in reduced state necessary for O2 xport. Methemoglobin can't xport O2 > cyanosis.
NADH (normal conditions) & NADPH (activated by redox dyes - methylene blue) methemoglobin reductase
What is the function of the Luebering-Rapoport pathway? What species have higher levels and which have lower levels?
Forms 2.3 diphosphaglycerate. Regulates O2 xport. Increased levels > O2 release (O2 has lower affinity for hemoglobin)
Higher levels: Dog, horse, pig. Lower levels: Cat, ruminant
What is the maturation cell sequence in erythropoiesis
Rubriblast > Prorubricyte > Rubricyte (multiple) > Metarubricyte > Reticulocyte > Erythrocyte
Pluripotent stem cell (hematopoiesis) differentiates into what?
Lymphoid stem cell > lymphocytes (T & B)
Myeloid stem cell (CFU-GEMM) > BFU-E > CFU-E > Erythrocytes
> CFU-GM > CFU-G > Neutrophil
> CFU-M > Monocyte
> CFU-Meg > Megakeryocyte > Platelet
> CFU-Eo >Eosinophil
> CFU-Bas > Basophil
What regulates erythropoiesis?
Erythropoietin (peritubular cells) stimulated by hypoxia
IL-3: T lymphocytes
GM-CSF: T lymphocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts
G-CSF: Macrophages, granulocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts
Androgens: Increase Epo release
Estrogens, corticosteroids: Decreases Epo release
Thyroid & pituitary hormones: alters O2 tissue demand
Where does erythropoiesis occur in fish?
Anterior kidney (primary)
Spleen
What enzyme controls the first step in heme synthesis?
Aminolevulinic acid synthetase
What agent (s) inhibits heme synthesis?
Lead (inhibits iron delivery to site of ferrochelatase action)
Chloramphenicol
What decreases serum iron? What increases it?
Decrease: Iron deficiency, acute and chronic inflammation
Increase: Hemolytic anemia, glucocorticoid excess (dog, horse) but causes decrease in cow
What causes an increase in TIBC? Any unique species exceptions?
Iron deficiency
Dog
What is the function of ceruloplasmin?
Transfer iron from gut epithelium and macrophages to transferrin
What causes a decrease in serum ferritin? What causes an increase
Decrease: Iron deficiency
Increase: Hemolytic anemia, iron overload, acute and chronic inflammation
Iron is stored where and in what forms?
Macrophages
Ferritin, hemosiderin
What is the RBC lifespan for the following species?
Dog:
110 days
Cat:
70
Cow:
160
Horse:
145
Pig:
86
Sheep:
150
Mouse:
20-45
What is the pathway of normal RBC destruction?
Erythrophagia > Released hemoglobin > Heme > Iron released > heme oxygenase > carbon monoxide + biliverdin > biliverdin reductase > bilirubin > blood > binds w/albumin > liver
> Globin > Amino acids > reused
What is the pathway of intravascular RBC destruction?
What is the size and red cell morphology for the following species?
Dog:
7um. Uniform size, central pallor, biconcave disk
Cat:
5.8um. Mild anisocytosis, slight central pallor, crenation common, 1% Howell-Jolly bodies (nuclear remants)
Cow:
5.5um. Anisocytosis common, slight central pallor, crenation common
Horse:
5.7um. Rouleaux common. NO central pallor
Pig:
6um. NO central pallor
Sheep:
4.5um. Anisocytosis common, slight central pallor, crenation common
Goat:
4um. Anisocytosis & poikilocytosis common
When do you see the following changes in erythrocytes? What the cell feature?
Macrocytosis:
Poodle macrocytosis, FeLV. Large cells
Microcytosis:
Iron & pyridoxine deficiency anemias. Small cells (types: spherocytes, cells remnants in Heinz body anemia
Polychromasia:
Regenerative anemia, w/increased erythropoiesis. Residual RNA
Hypochromasia:
Iron deficiency. Increased central pallor, insufficienct Hb
Poikilocyte:
Various dzs. Abnormal shaped RBC
Echinocytes:
Artifact or seen with uremia. Crenated cells
Keratocytes:
Trauma (DIC, Dz. w/intravascular fibrin > membrane trauma). Ruptured vesicle > one or two projections
Schistocytes:
Trauma. Irregular RBC fragments
Acanthocytes:
Hemangiosarcoma, liver dz. Spiculated cells with 2 or more irregular, blunted projections
Leptocytes:
Portosystemic shunts. Thin cells w/increased membrane to volume ratio resemble targets (target cells)
Spherocytes:
Dogs w/immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. Small cell, no central pallor d/t partial phagocytosis
Stomatocytes:
Hereditary stomatocytosis of Alaskan malamutes & schnauzers. Oval shaped central pallor
Basophilic stippling:
Anemia in sheep, cattle, occ. cats; lead poisoning w/metarubricytosis. Indicates regen anemia. Residual RNA (punctate aggregates)
Howell-Jolly bodies:
Accelerated erythropoiesis or postsplenectomy. Basophilic DNA nuclear remnants
Heinz bodies:
Oxidation > denatured Hb d/t: Copper toxicity (sheep), onion toxicity, tylenol (cats), Kale & other Brassica spp. (ruminants), red maple leaves (horses), St. Augustine grass, intravascular hemolysis. Round structures on internal RBC membrane. Normal finding in nonanemic cats.
Eccentrocytes:
Oxidative injury. Hb condensed in one portion of RBC, remaining cell clear or blister-like area
Nucleated erythrocytes:
Erythroid hyperplasia, lead poisoning, hemangiosarcoma (liver, spleen), EMH, myelophthisis, intervertebral disc syndrome, schnauzers, bone marrow trauma. Metarubricyte or earlier ciruculating cells
Rouleaux formation:
Seen with fibrinogen increase, change in serum globulins. Parallels RBC sediment rate. Disappears w/saline
Agglutination:
Antibody-mediated anemia. Doesn't disappear w/saline
What conditions have normochromic macrocytes
Macrocytosis of Poodles
FeLV infections
Preleukemia in dogs & cats
Erythroid aplasia in cats
Vitamin B12 deficiency of Giant Schnauzers
List the ascarid(s) in the following species
Swine:
Ascaris suum var suis
Dog:
Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina
Felid:
Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina
Cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo:
Toxocara vitulorum
Horse, zebra:
Parascaris equorum
Chickens, turkeys:
Ascaridia galli (enteritis, diarrhea)
Fox:
Toxascaris leonina
Rodents:
Baylisascaris procyonis (cerebrospinal)
List the important hookworm(s) for the following species
Cattle:
Bunostomum phlebotomum
Dog:
Ancylostoma caninum, A. braziliense, Uncinaria stenocephala, Baylisascaris columnaris
Fox:
Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinara criniformis
Cat:
Ancylostoma tubaeforme, A. braziliense
Sheep, goats:
Bunostomum trigonocephalum
Swine:
Globocephalus urusubulatus
Fur seal:
Uncinaria lucasi
Monkeys:
Necator americanus
Deer:
Bunostomum trigonocephalum
List the Physaloptera species that affect the following species (Signs: mucosal eroded, inflamed, increased mucus production)
Dog:
P. canis (stomach), P. rara (stomach, duodenum)
Cat:
P. felidis (stomach, intestines), P. canis (stomach), P. pseudopraeputialis (stomach, larynx), P. praeputialis (stomach)
Macaque monkeys:
P. tumefaciens (stomach)
New World monkeys:
P. dilitata (stomach)
Old World monkeys:
P. caucasia (esophagus, stomach, intestines), P. poicilometra
Raccoons, skunks, badgers, weasels:
P. maxillaris
Wild canid and felid:
P. rara (stomach, duodenum)
Doves, other birds:
P. alata (gizzard, intestines)
Fowl:
P. gemina
List the important vascular schistosoma in the following species & local
Monkey:
S. mansoni - mesenteric & portal veins
Cattle, sheep, goat, horse, mule, antelope, baboon:
S. bovis - mesenteric veins
Dog, raccoon, bobcat, rabbit:
Heterobilharzia - mesenteric veins
Give the definition for the following terms
Agyria (lissencephaly):
Too few or no gyri,; poor cerebral cytologic organization
Amyelia:
Absence of spinal cord
Anencephaly:
Absence of brain
Anophthalmos:
Absence of both eyes
Arnold-Chiari syndrome:
Caudal shift of medulla & sometimes cerebellum
Arrhinencephaly:
Absence of rhinencephalon
Cerebellar hyposplasia (aplasia):
Failure of cerebellum to develop to normal size & cellularity
Cranioschisis:
Gap in skull (cranium bifidum) often w/brain substance or meningeal herniation
Cyclopia:
Only one eye
Dysraphia:
Syringomyelia, midline defect in spinal cord
Encephalocele:
Herniation of brain through a cranial defect
Exencephaly:
Brain outside cranial cavity
Hydranencephaly:
Cerebral hemispheres are empty sacs d/texcessive cerebrospinal fluid, hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus:
Ventricles are dilated by excess cerebrospinal fluid
Hydromyelia:
Cerebrospinal fluid is retained in dilated central canal of spinal cord
Macroencephaly:
Brain enlarged
Macrogyria:
Cerebral gyri enlarged
Megaloencephaly:
Brain extremely enlarged
Meningocele:
Herniation of meninges through bony defects in the skull
Microencephaly: