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46 Cards in this Set

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Makes recommendations on occupational and public dose limits based on information from UNSCEAR and NAS/NRC-BEIR.

ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection

Reviews ICRP recommendations and implements them into US radiation protection policy.

NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements)

It's mandate in the United Nations system is to assess and report levels and effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. The governments and organizations rely on the estimates as the scientific basis for evaluating radiation risk and for establishing protective measures.

UNSCEAR

NAS/NRC-BEIR What does this stand for?

National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

Both are advisory groups that review research and studies on biologic effects of ionizing radiation and risk assessment and supplies information to the ICRP.

UNSCEAR


NAS/NRC-BEIR

Federal agency whose main function is to oversee the nuclear energy industry that controls manufacture, use and disposal of radioactive substances formed in nuclear reactors.

NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission)

Facilitates the development and enforcement of regulations pertaining to the control of radiation in the environment. E.g. radon

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)

Regulates design, manufacture of electronic products including diagnostic x ray equipment

FDA and CDRH (Food and Drug Administration) (Center for Devices and Radiological Health)

Monitors places of employment. "Right to know"

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)

Ensures radiation safety program that protects all persons


Maintains radiation-monitoring records


Provides counseling for individuals

Radiation safety officer

NCRP recommendations are based on these 3 concepts

Linear non-threshold


Risk vs benefit


ALARA

Dose limits are stated in what units?

Effective Dose EfD

Dose limits (EfD) for patients?

Eyes - 15 rem 15,000 mrem 150 mSv



Skin, foot, hand - 50 rem 50,000 mrem 5,00 mSv

Whole body EfD limits for occupational exposures?

Annual - 5 rem 5,000 mrem 50 mSv


Cumulative - 1 rem x age 10 mSv x age

What is the CumEfD limit for a 48 year old RT who has been working for 25 years in radiography?

1 rem x 48 = 48 rem


10 mSv x 48 = 480 mSv

Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for embryo/fetus of pregnant women?

.5 rem (500 mrem or 5 mSv) for entire pregnancy

NCRP recommended dose limit for embryo of pregnant woman,

.05 rem (50 mrem or .5 mSv) per month

What is the part of the radiation safety program to prevent employee exposure from exceeding dose limits where as a high badge reading would trigger an investigation called?

Action limits

When should a worker be monitored for radiation exposure?

When they are regularly exposed to ionizing radiation and are likely to receive more than 1/10 of the recommended dose limit

4 types of personal monitors worn by workers?

Film badge


OSL - optically stimulated luminescence


TLD - thermoluminescent dosimeter


Pocket ionization chamber

Which type of dosimeter is usualky worn as a ring?

TLD thermoluminescent dosimeter

Which type of dosimeter is expensive and has no permanent record?

Pocket ionization chamber

What measures background exposure and shod be kept in a distant room or office away from radiation areas so it can be subtracted from personal monitors?

Control monitors

Measures exposure rate and cumulative exposure and is used in detecting leakage in an x ray room?

Cutie pie

Used to detect x, gamma, and beta radiation and is primarily used in nuclear medicine to locate spills?

Geiger-muller counter

The product of the surface area of the patient that is exposed to radiation at the skin entrance (in square centimeters) multiplied by the radiation dose at the surface (in grays)

DAP dose area product


Gy x cm^2

3 cardinal principles of radiation protection

Time


Distance


Shielding

The 3 catagories of radiation sources

Primary


Scatter


Leakage

Tube leakage should not exceed what amount while tube is energized at maximum technical factors?

100 mR/hr at 1 meter from the tube.

Lead apron

.25 mm pb equiv

Lead gloves

.25 mm pb equiv

Thyroid shield

.5 mm pb equiv

Gonad shielding should always be used when the gonads are in or within how far from a proper collimated beam?

5 cm

To reduce ESE the following SSD should be used

Stationary units - 38cm or 15in


Mobile units - 30cm or 12in

Accuracy of PBL positive beam limitation (automatic collimation) should bot exceed what amount of the SID?

2%

Misalignment of collimated area to IR should not exceed how much of SID.

2%

Fluoroscopy beam limitation length and width of beam at image receptor should not exceed visible image area by more than how much?

3%

Describe total tube filtration.

Equioment that operates above 70 kVp should be a minimum of w.5 mm al equivalent to achieve a minimum HVL of 2.3 al at 80 kV.

Describe total tube filtration.

Equioment that operates above 70 kVp should be a minimum of w.5 mm al equivalent to achieve a minimum HVL of 2.3 al at 80 kV.

3 ways to reduce beam intensity for fluoroscopy

Use high kV to minimize mA


When not needed, remove grid


Avoid magnification and high dose modes

On manual mode or fluoroscopy equipment with optional high dose control exposure must not exceed how much at the point where beam enters patient?

5R/min

On AEC equipment, exposure must not exceed how much at the point where the beam enters the patient?

10R/min

High dose control for fluoroscopy, exposure must exceed what?

20R/min

3 requirements for high dose operation

Special means to activate


High dose switch requires continuous manual activation by operator


A continuous audible signal during high dose operation

ESE for average fluoro exam

3R/min

A fluoro unit emits 5R/min. What is the patient exposure for a BE that is conducted and requires 3.5 min fluoro time?

5R x 3.5min = 17.5R