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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Acronym for as low as reasonably achievable.


One of the three basic principles of radiation protection.

Distance (could be time, or shielding also)

In the medical industry with reference to the radiation sciences, the possibility of inducing a radiogenic cancer or genetic defect after irradiation.


A subunit of the sievert equal to 1/1000 of a sievert.

Millisievert (mSv)

Method for comparing the amount of radiation received from a radiologic procedure with natural background radiation received over a specified period of time such as days, weeks, months or years.

BERT (Background Equivalent Radiation Time)

Effective measures employed by radiation workers to safeguard patients, personnel, and the general public from unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation.

Radiation Protection

The benefit to the referring physician in having direct access to a patient's radiation dose history being the option of knowing whether or not the ordering of an additional radiographic procedure is advisable.

Standardized Dose Reporting

Term that is synonymous with the acronym ALARA

Optimization for radiation protection

A disease process that does not have a fixed threshold

Radiation-Induced Cancer

The degree to which the diagnostic study accurately reveals that presence or absence of disease in a patient.

Diagnostic Efficacy

Individual in a hospital setting expressly charged by the administration to be directly responsible for the execution, enforcement, and maintenance of the ALARA program.

Radiation Safety Officer (RSO)

Makes patients feel that they are active participants in their own health care.

Appropriate and effective communication

Fear of being exposed to radiation

Radiation Phobia

Damage to living tissue of animals and humans exposed to radiation.

Biologic Effects

Consists of two phases: (1) formulation new policies and procedures to promote radiation safety and the implementation of patient and community education and (2) technologic enhancements.

TRACE program (Tools for Radiation Awareness and Community Education)

SI unit of measure for the radiation quantity, "equivalent dose"

Sievert (Sv)

________ ________ ________; surface of the skin where x-radiation enters the patient's body, resulting in an area of maximum exposure

Entrance Skin Exposure (ESE)

A consequence of ionization in human cells

Production of free radicals

Produces positively and negatively charge particles (ions) when passing through matter.

Ionizing Radiation

Certain individual radiographic procedures need to have patient dose dictated into every radiologic report. These procedures include ________, ________, and _________.

CT, Genera Fluoro, Interventional Procedures

________ _______ on ______ _____ and _________ recommends the use of BERT for improving patient understanding and reducing fear and anxiety associated with having an x-ray procedure.

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements


A threshold exists for radiation-induced malignant disease.


BERT is based on an annual US population exposure of approximately ____ mSv per year.



Human-made radiation is more dangerous than an equal amount of natural radiation.

False; equally harmful

Nuclear power plant severely damaged as a consequence of a 9.0-magnitude earthquake that triggered a tsunami.

Fukushima Daiichi

Radiation produced as a consequence of nuclear weapons testing and chemical explosions in nuclear power plants.


Electric and magnetic fields that fluctuate rapidly as they travel through space, including radio waves, microwaves, visible light and x-rays

Electromagnetic Wave

Consumer product that produced substantial radiation exposure levels when it was first made available to consumers

Color TV

SI unit for measuring radiation exposure.


Specified in electron volts (eV)


Radiation quantity used for radiation protection purposes when a person receives exposure from various types of ionizing radiation (This quantity attempts to specify numerically the difference sin transferred energy and therefore potential biologic harm that are produced by different types of radiation).

EqD (equivalent dose)

An unstable nucleus that emits one or more forms of ionizing radiation to achieve greater stability.


Genetic or somatic changes in a living organism caused by excessive cellular damage from exposure to ionizing radiation.

Organic Damage

Radiation quantity that takes into account the dose of all types of ionizing radiation to various irradiated organs or tissues in the human body.

EfD (Effective Dose)

Biologic effects of ionizing radiation or other agents on generations yet unborn

genetic damage

natural sources of ionizing radiation that grow large because of accidental or deliberate human actions such as mining.

enhanced natural sources

process that is the foundation of interactions of x-rays with human tissue


positively charge components of an atom


injury on the cellular level caused by sufficient exposure to ionizing radiation at the molecular level

cellular damage

long-lived radioactive elements present in variable quantities in the c rust of the earth and emitting densely ionizing radiation.

Terrestrial Radiation

kinetic energy that passes from one location to another


identical to a high-speed electron except is is emitted from the nuclei of radioactive atoms instead of originating in the atomic shells outside of the nucleus

beta particle

another name for multislice spiral computed tomography


contains two protons and two neutrons

alpha particle

the full range of frequencies and wavelengths of electromagnetic waves

electromagnetic spectrum

rays of extraterrestrial origin that result from nuclear interactions that have taken place in the sun and other stars

cosmic rays

the number of protons contained within the nuclei of an atom

atomic number

The amount of energy transferred to electrons by ionizing radiation is the basis of the concept of _________.

Radiation Dose

According to NCRP Report No. 160, which reflects usage patterns through 2006, radon and thor on account for what percentage of natural background radiation exposure?


Of the following radiations, which are classified as particulate radiations?

1. X-rays and gamma rays

2. Alpha particles and beta particles

3. Gamma rays and high-energy ultraviolet radiation


Beta particles are _______ times lighter than alpha particles.


From which of the following sources do human beings receive the largest dose of ionizing radiation?

1. Radioactive fallout from atomic weapons testing

2. medical radiation procedures

3. cosmic rays

4. area around a nuclear reactor


The ________ ______ measures radiation quantity used for radiation protection purposed that attempts to specify numerically the differences in transferred energy and therefore potential biologic harm that is produced by different types of radiation.

Equivalent Dose

As of 2006, the average US inhabitant received an EqD of approximately ___ per year from extraterrestrial radiation.


_______, ________, and _________ wallboard are common building materials containing radon.

Brick, Concrete, Gypsum

The United States performed above-ground nuclear weapons tests before 1963. During the _____ ______, an atomic cloud was created by a 37-kiloton testing device that was exploded from a balloon at the Nevada test site on June 24, 1957.

Priscilla Test

Unfortunate accidents involving nuclear reactors can occur. This can lea to substantial, ________ radiation exposure for humans and the environment.


The aim of the _______ project was to rebuild acceptable living conditions for local citizens in contaminated territories in the Ukraine region of Russia by actively involving them in the reconstruction project.


_________ radiation consists predominately of high-energy protons.


Medical radiation exposure results from the use of diagnostic ________ machines, and ___________ in medicine.

x-ray; radio-pharmaceuticals

A tremendous explosion on the surface of the sun is called a _______ _________.

Solar Flare

Artificial teeth made in the United States are estimated to give the oral cavity an average dose of _____ mSv/yr.


The EPA estimates that ____% of the homes in the United States exceed the recommended limit of 4 pCi/L or radon.


In cooler months, when homes and buildings are tightly closed, radon levels are usually ______.


List the percentage of contribution to the total collective effective dose for the following:

1. Radon & Thoron (Background) -

2. Space (Background) -

3. Internal (Background) -

4. Terrestrial (Background) -

5. Computed Tomography (Medical) -

6. Nuclear Medicine (Medical) -

7. IR -

8. Fluoro/XRay (Medical) -

9. Consumer -

10. Occupational -

11. Industrial -

1. 37

2. 5

3. 5

4. 3

5. 24

6. 12

7. 7

8. 5

9. 2

10. < 0.1

11. <0.1

The biological effect of ________ happens at 0.25 sV.

Blood Changes

The biological effect of ______ happens at 1.5 sV.

Nausea, Diarrhea

The biological effect of _______ happens at 2 sV.

Erythema (Redness allover skin)

The biological effect of ________ (gonads) happens at 2.5 sV.

temporary sterility

The biological effect of _______ happens at 3 sV.

50% chance of death

The biological effect of ________ happens at 6 sV.


Dental X-rays have an EfD of ______, equivalent to _____ of background radiation.

0.06 mSv, 7 Days

A chest radiograph has an EfD of _______, equivalent to ________ of background radiation.

0.08 mSv, 10 Days

A lumbar spine series has an EfD of __________, equivalent to _________ of background radiation.

3.0 mSv, 1 Year

Abdominal X-rays have an EfD of ______, equivalent to ________ background radiation.

0.7 mSv, 4 Months

A CT of the chest has an EfD of ______, equivalent to ________ background radiation.

8.0 mSv, 3.6 Years

A CT of the abdomen/pelvis has an EfD of ______, equivalent to ________ background radiation.

10.0 mSv, 4.5 Years