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100 Cards in this Set

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In the Excretory role , what is the urinary system primarily concerned with the removal of ?
Nitrogenous wastes

what performs the excretory and homeostatic function of the urinary system

Kidneys

Kidneys

what part of the kidney is segregated into triangular regions with a striped appearance?
Madulla
Madulla
As the renal artery approaches the kidney, it is divided into branches, what are these branches known as?
Segmental arteries
Segmental arteries

anatomical units responsible for the formation of urine?

Nephrons

Nephrons

what is the knot of coiled capillaries, found in the kidney, that forms the filtrate called?
Glomerulus
Glomerulus
what is the section of the renal tubule closest to the glomerular capsule called
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Which Arterioles drain the glomerular capillary bed. Afferent or Efferent
Efferent Arterioles
Efferent Arterioles
True or False. During tubular reabsorption, components of the filtrate move from the bloodstream into the tubule
False
False
is it the INTERNAL or EXTERNAL urethral sphincter that consists of skeletal muscle and is voluntarily controlled.
External Urethral Sphincter
External Urethral Sphincter

smooth membrane tightly adherent to the kidney surface

Fibrous Capsule

Fibrous Capsule

Portion of the kidney containing mostly collecting ducts
Medulla
Medulla
Portion of the kidney containing the bulk of the nephron structures
Cortex
Cortex
what is the superficial region of the kidney tissue
Cortex
Cortex
What is the basinlike area of the kidney, continuous with the ureter
Renal Pelvis
Renal Pelvis
what is the cup shaped extension of the pelvis that encircles the apex of a pyramid
Minor Calyx
Minor Calyx
What is the area of cortical tissue running between the medullary pyramids
Renal Column
Renal Column
what is the site of filtrate formation
Glomerulus
Glomerulus

what is the primary site of tubular reabsorption

Proximal Convulated Tubule

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

What is the secondarily important site of tubular reabsorption
Distal Convulated Tubule
structure that conveys the processed filtrate (urine) to the renal pelvis
Collecting Ducts
blood supply that directly receives substances form the tubular cells
Peritubular Capillaries
Peritubular Capillaries
its inner (visceral) membrane forms part of the filtration membrane
Glomerular Capsule
Glomerular Capsule
what makes normal urine usually pale yellow to amber in color
Urochrome
what is the average pH value of urine
6.0
True or False. Glucose can usually be found in all normal urine
False
what is Hematuria
Presence of blood in urine

when bile pigments are found in urine what is this condition known as ?

Bilirubinura

Hardened cell fragments formed in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts and flushed out of the urinary tract
Casts
what is the normal volume of urine excreted in a 24 hour period?
1.0 - 1.8 Liters
What substances are usually in grater relative concentration in the urine than in the glomerular filtrate
Phosphate Ions, Sulfate Ions, Potassium Ions, Urea, Uric Acid, Creatinine
What substances are normally in lessor concentration in the urine than in the flomerular filtrate
Water, Sodium Ions, Amino Acids, Glucose.
What substances are normally absent from both the urine and the glomerular filtrate
Albumin, Red Blood Cells, Pus(WBC's), Nitrites

Which has a greater specific gravity: 1 ml of urine or 1 ml of distilled water, and why?

Urine contains dissolved solutes, which are not found in distilled water and adds to the density of the sample.

Explain the relationship between the color, specific gravity, and volume of urine.
The smaller the volume, the greater the specific gravity and the deeper the color.

Name three constituents that might be present if a urinary tract infection exists.

WBC's,


RBC's,


Casts.

How does a urinary tract infection influence urine pH?
Alkaline

Explain why all urine specimens become alkaline and cloudy on standing at room temperature

Bacterial Metabolism components

what is it called when there is a presence of erythrocytes in the urine

Hematura

what is it called when there is a presence of hemoglobin in the urine

Hemoglobinuria

what is it called when there is a presence of glucose in the urine
Glycosuria
what is it called when there is a presence of albumin in the urine
Albuminuria
what is it called when there is a presence of ketone bodies (acetone and others) in the urine
Ketonuria
what is it called when there is a presence of pus (white blood cells) in the urine
Pyuria
what is renal calculi?
Kidney Stones
Why is glucose normally not found in urine
Glucose is normally completely reabsorbed
why is Albumin not normally found in urine
Albumin is to large to pass through the filtration membrane
what are the three major nitrogenous wastes found in urine
Urea, Uric Acid, Creatinine
What are Organized Sediments
Whit blood cells, Red blood cells, and Casts

what are Unorganized Sediments

Chemical substances that form crystals or precipitate form solutions.

what are the two principal functions of the testis

Produce sperm and testosterone

how is palpation of the male prostate accomplished
Physician gently inserts finger through the anterior wall of the rectum
How might enlargement of the prostate interfere with urination or the reproductive ability of the male.
An enlarged prostate gland can constrict the urethra
Copulatory organ/penetrating device
Penis
Muscular passageway conveying sperm to the ejaculatory ducts; in the spermatic cord
Ductus (Vas) Deferens
Ductus (Vas) Deferens
Transports both sperm and urine
Spongy Urethra
Sperm maturation site
Epididymis
Epididymis
Location of the testis in adult males
Scrotum
Loose fold of skin encircling the glands penis
Prepuce
Prepuce
Portion of the urethra between the prostate and the penis
Membranous Urethra
Membranous Urethra
Empties a secretion into the prostate urethra
Prostate
Empties a secretion into the membranous urethra
Bulbourethral Glands
Bulbourethral Glands
What structures compose the spermatic cord?
Connective tissue sheath, Ductus Deferens, Blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
Connective tissue sheath, Ductus Deferens, Blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.

Where is the spermatic cord located

Passes from scrotal sac through the inguinal canal into the abdominal cavity

Passes from scrotal sac through the inguinal canal into the abdominal cavity

Trace the pathway of sperm from the testes to the urethra

Seminiferous Tubules, Rete Testis, Epididymis, Ductus Deferens

Name the structures composing the external genitalia of the female

Mons Pubis, Labia Majora and Minora, Clitoris, Urethra and Vaginal Orifices, Greater Vestibular Glands

Mons Pubis, Labia Majora and Minora, Clitoris, Urethra and Vaginal Orifices, Greater Vestibular Glands

Site of Fetal Development
Uterus
Copulatory Canal
Vagina
Egg typically fertilized here
Uterine (Fallopian) Tube
Partially closes the vaginal canal; membrane
Hymen
Hymen
Produces oocytes, estrogens, and progesterone
Ovaries
Fingerlike Ends of the uterine tube
Fimbriae
Fimbriae
what is Ovulation
Ejection of an immature egg form the overy
What is the function of the cavernous bodies seen in the penis
Cavernous bodies fill with blood causing penis to become erect
name the three layers of the uterine wall from the inside out
Endometrium, Myometrium, Perimetrium
Endometrium, Myometrium, Perimetrium
what layer of the uterine wall is sloughed during menses
Endometrium
what layer of the uterine wall contracts during child birth
Myometrium
when sperm is produced what part of the duct system does it enter first
Epididymis
Epididymis
what type of fluid does the prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands produce
Seminal fluid
what cells produce testosterone?
Interstitial Cells
Interstitial Cells
How many chromosomes does human gametes contain?
23
what is the end product of meiosis
Four haploid daughter cells

what cell extend inward from the periphery of the seminiferous tubule and provide nourishment to the spermatids as they begin there transformation into sperm

Sustentacular cells

what is the saclike structure call that the immature ovum develops in
Follicle
Follicle
As a primordial follicle grows and its epithelium changes form squamous to cuboidal cells, what type of follicle does it become and what does it do?
Primary follicle and begins to produce estrogens
Primary follicle and begins to produce estrogens
True or False. The Sudden release of luteinizing hormone by the anterior pituitary triggers ovulation
True
what is a Corpus Luteum
A solid glandular structure with a scalloped lumen that develops from a ruptured follicle
A solid glandular structure with a scalloped lumen that develops from a ruptured follicle
when are dyads visible. During mitosis, meiosis, or both?
Both Mitosis and Meiosis
when are tetrads visible. During mitosis, meiosis, or both?
Meiosis only
product is two diploid daughter cells genetically identical to the mother cell.



Mitosis, Meiosis, Or Both

Mitosis only
Product is four haploid daughter cells quantitatively and qualitatively different from the mother cell



Mitosis, Meiosis, or Both

Meiosis Only

Involves the phases, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase




Mitosis, Meiosis, or Both

Both Mitosis and Meiosis

Occurs throughout the body.



Mitosis, Meiosis, or Both



Mitosis only


Occurs only in ovaries and testes



Mitosis, Meiosis, or Both

Meiosis Only


Provide cells for repair


Mitosis, Meiosis, or Both

Mitosis ONly

Homologues synapse; chiasmata are seen



Mitosis, Meiosis, or Both

Meiosis only
Meiosis only


chromosomes are replicated before the division process begins



Mitosis, Meiosis, or Both

Both Mitosis and Meiosis


Provides cells for perpetuation of the species



Mitosis, Meiosis, or Both

Meiosis Only


Consists of two consecutive nuclear divisions, without chromosomal replication occurring before the second division


Mitosis, Meiosis, or Both

Meiosis ONly

what are Homologous Chromosomes
Egg & Sperm chromosomes that carry genes for the same traits