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43 Cards in this Set

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Endocrine system

-collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate




metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexualfunction, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things.

Nervous system


made up of neurons, axon, then another neuron with dendrites.

· Synapse

-separation from neuron 1 to neuron 2


-Gives control to the chemicals that we send.

gland

- Anything that sends out messages into the endocrine system


- Sends out hormone to target cells/non-target cells.


-All glands have blood vessels coming from them so that the hormones that they release can get into the bloodstream fast.


-hormones circulate through your body, only binding to the cells that have the right receptor proteins that fit them.



Where can you find glands?

brain (pituitary)


throat (thyroid)


kidney (adrenal)


stomach (pancreas)


baby making (gonads)

hormone

-diffuse and spread throughout your body into cells or not


-Steroids are derived from cholesterol and there's a bunch of different types of them.


-There are peptides, which are just chains of amino acids and monoamines, which are based on a single amino acid.


-peptide & amino hormones are water soluble and don't dissolve in lipids.


-steroids are lipid soluble, so they're able to penetrate the membrane and bind with the receptors and the cell's nucleus.


adrenaline is in what system?

endocrine system

water soluble hormone


(epinephrine or adrenaline)

-Dock with protein on surface of cell, then set up a transduction path way


-Action inside the nucleus to make specific genes, or proteins or transcribe certain genes.

Lipid solublehormone


(testosterone)


Move all the way into the cells


Thyroid gland

-secreted hormone from the anterior pituitary


-regulates matabolism, appetite, muscle function, blood pressure, heart rate, etc.


-secretes thyroid hormone which boosts metabolism


-increase in metabolism tells the pituitary to stop sending out TSH



hypothalamus

-liaison between nervous system and endocrine system


-tells glands what to do, based on info from senses and other nerve functions




-EX) breast feeding women will start releasing milk when their baby starts crying


-sensory info-from hypothalamus from the nervous system, telling that the baby might be hungry.

pituitary

-makes hormones that instruct other glands to make other hormones


-the pituitary is connected to the hypothalamus, with 2 lobes which are two diff. glands fused together.



posterior pituitary

-extension of the hypothalamus


-secretes 2 hormones that are actually made by the hypothalamus.


- oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone

oxytocin

stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth and helps with breastfeeding


-probably has a role in social recognition, pair bonding, organisms, and anxiety.



antidiuretic

secreted by the posterior pituitary, which tells the kidneys to retain water.



anterior pituitary

both manufactures and secretes a whole battery of hormones.

adrenal glands

sit right on top of the kidneys and


-in charge of making hormones that help the kidneys maintain the level of salt and water in your body


-also responds to stress

adrenal (cortex and medulla)

-stimulates the adrenal glad to make epinephrine (adrenaline)


-cut off blood supply to digestive system


-send blood to lungs and muscles and speed up your heart rate

pancreas

-regulate levels of glucose in the blood


-secretes insulin


-insulin travels around your boody and stimulates every type of body cell to absorb glucose


-liver and muscle cells convert the glucose to glycogen for storage and other cells in the connective tissue called adipose cells, convert the glucose into fat


-if low blood sugar, your pancrease releases glucagon which stimulates the liver and muscles to start the process that breaks up the glycogen and fat release the glucose so that you

testes

make androgens, mainly testosterone which helps with sperm making



ovaries

make estrogens and progestins, which stimulates the growth of the uterine lining.

endocrine system vs. nervous system

endocrine


- sprays hormones into blood stream, that give instructions to other glands regulating levels of salt and sugar and water in ur blood.


nervous


-carries info really quickly and responses are short-lived

endocrine gland vs. exocrine gland

endocrine


-keeps stuff inside body


-hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids,adrenal, pineal body, and reproductive organs


-secrete hormones DIRECTLY into the blood stream




exocrine


-send stuff outside the body


-travel through ducts, depositing substances onto epithelial surfaces which line the cavities and surfaces of blood vessels and organs throughout the body


-squamous, columnar, and cubodial

Paracrine signaling vs. Autocrine signaling

paracrine


-releases hormone molecules that degrade quickly and are only received within a small region of the body




autocrine


-which sends chemical signals within a cell or from one cell to the adjacent cell at most. this is what happens when in your immune system when a single t-cell realizes it needs to start cloning itself so it can fight off a virus

how do insulin and glucagon work to maintain normal glucose levels in blood?

-When the pancreas secretes glucagon, it suppresses insulin.


-Glucagon signals the liver and muscles to break down glycogen into glucose and release glucose back into your bloodstream.


-This keeps your blood sugar levels from dipping too low.


pathway for milk production

Hypothalamus -> nudge pituitary gland-> release hormones to stimulate milk production and secretion


what % of life on earth reproduces sexually?

99.9%

what process is responsible for making both sperm and egg?

meiosis

how many chromosomes does each sperm or egg carry?

23

what % of sperm are non viable?

60%

do the fastest sperm always reach the egg and fertilize first?

no, there might be no egg to go to because of ovulation so when they get caught, it gives them time to meet the egg at the same time

when does a woman produce all of her eggs?

when they are a fetus in the womb

why are human births so dangerous?

painful, can cause death to both the human and the baby

what is the behavioral adaptation we use to respond to this challenge?

uterus contracts and cervix opens up

what hormones are responsible for initiating birth?

prostaglandins and relaxin

pineal gland

hormone - melatonin


action - circadian rhythm

posterior pituitary

H - oxytocin , ADH


A - lactation, bonding anti-diurectic

anterior pituitary

H - growth hormone FSH & LH


A - cell growth ovulation

thyroid

H - thyroid hormones (T3/T4) calcitonin


A - metabolism, calcium levels, bone growth

pancreas

h- insulin, glucagon


a- lower/raise blood sugar

adrenal cortex

h-epinephrine (adrenaline)


a-fight or flight/stress response

ovary

h- estrogens


a- secondary sex characteristics

testes

h-testosterone


a-secondary sex characteristics