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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The senses of _____ both rely on detection of chemical molecules.
taste and smell
Peter believes that his newborn already detects a difference between when he walks away from her and when he walks toward her, and that she understands that these two actions will lead to different outcomes for her. Peter's beliefs are most similar to those of a(n)
Visual acuity is defined as the ability to perceive
Ozzie is planning on attending a very loud rock concert. As such, he should be prepared to experience _____ unless he takes precautions to protect his hearing.
Wadsworth is extremely easily distracted, seems to forget whatever he starts to do, and just cannot seem to follow directions. This would suggest that Wadsworth has significant problems with
Nativists believe that we enter the world with knowledge that helps us understand the world.
When looking at faces, infants between age one and two months shift from
looking at the outer contour of the face to looking at the interiors of the face.
if you were experiencing tinnitus, you would
hear ringing in your ears
A child's attention span is typically more systematic than that of an infant.
Swen's doctor just informed him that in order to correct his visual problem, Swen must have his clouded lens replaced. This means that Swen's visual problem involves
If you want your two-week-old child to see you as clearly as possible, you should
put your face within about eight inches of her eyes
Which indicates that Maria has well-developed selective attention skills?
She can pay attention to her teacher's voice while ignoring the voices of other students who are talking at the same time
Visual accommodation involves the ability of the _____ of the eye to change shape and bring objects into focus.
Whose experience has been identified by scientists as directly contributing to some cases of ADHD?
Dwight, who suffered from a lack of oxygen during his birth
Sensory threshold is defined as the
minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected
The sense of smell is also referred to as the sense of
Four month-old infants appear to use object _____ to determine whether two side-by-side objects are separate.
Which word best describes the taste "umami?"
Increased eye pressure that can eventually lead to blindness is called
Mom Billie and dad Bob are discussing the abilities of their two-month-old son Thorton. Billie claims that Thorton can recognize both of his parent's voices. Bob says that Thorton cannot recognize either voice. If Thorton is a typical two-month-old, then who is correct?
Neither, as Thorton can likely recognize Billie's voice but not Bob's voice
Piaget's theory...
does a nice job describing development, but a poor job explaining it
what is horizontal decalage?
the idea that cognitive skills may emerge at different times within the same stage of development
what is a legitimate question concerning the lack of success of older adults on piagetian tasks?
could it be due to a lack of motivation to solve tasks that are so rarely encountered in life
the piagetian concept of decentration" refers to the inability to
focus on more than one dimension of a problem at one time
imaginary companions are most likely to first develop during the _____ stage of development
research has demonstrated that when shown a card with a cat on one side and a dog on one side, three-year olds seemed to correctly understand that when a researcher held the card so that the child saw the dog, the researcher must be seeing a cat. This indicates that children may not be as ____ as Piaget suggested
which of gibson's statements indicates that he is engaging in hypothetical-deductive reasoning?
if the length of a guitar string matters, then a short string should produce a different sound than a long string
Vygotsky saw private speech in toddlers as a sign of cognitive maturity
a hallmark achievement of concrete operational thought is being able to
solve conservation tasks
static thought involves a fixation on the
end state
transitivity is best defined as
the necessary relations among elements in a series
findings from the munich longitudinal study of the ontogenesis of individual competencies (LOGIC) demonstrated that most 12 year olds
could recognize good or bad examples of scientific research but could not create good experiments
In what sort of reasoning does one move from general ideas to their specific implications?
Select one:
Whose statement indicates that they are engaging in dialectic thinking?
Eileen, who says, "I just do not understand how light can be both a wave and an individual element, but I will."
A teenager's difficulty in differentiating his own thoughts and feelings from those of other people is called adolescent
Houdini is watching a magician pour a clear liquid from one glass into another. When the liquid enters the second glass, it magically changes to the color blue. While Houdini finds the trick interesting, he is not surprised that an object can be changed from one state to another. This indicates that Houdini possesses _____ thought.
According to Piaget, intelligence is the ability to
adapt to one's environment
Which is a legitimate criticism of Vygotsky's theory?
He placed too much emphasis on the influence of social interactions.
Learning through active involvement in culturally relevant activities with the aid of knowledgeable individuals is referred to as
guided participation.
Which cognitive skill would a formal operations thinker possess that a concrete operational thinker would lack?
hypothetical-deductive reasoning
Explicit memories occur unintentionally.
Habituation is best described as learning
not to respond
Carlos's teacher tells the class that they should be sure to listen to an important announcement that is coming in on the school's intercom. Carlos, however, misses the message as he is focused on a fly that is crawling across his desk. Carlos's failure is best blamed on faulty
attention skills
Milton is playing a game of "20 Questions" in which he has to try and guess what his friend Bradley is thinking about. Which of Milton's inquiries would best exemplify a constraint-seeking question?
is it an animal
A memory that occurs without any conscious effort is best referred to as
Wayne has trouble remembering the last four digits of his new phone number (4422) until he makes the connection that the last two digits are exactly half of the first two digits. Once he makes this connection, he has no trouble remembering the number! This best demonstrates the memory concept of
Research has indicated that procedural memory is mediated by the straitum. This means that
the brain is involved in processing memory.
Research on autobiographical memory in adulthood has shown that the more _____ an event, the better it will later be recalled.
Flavell and Wellman (1977) suggested four major reasons to explain the improved memory and learning abilities in the aging child. Which was NOT on their list of reasons?
A working-term memory that increases from 1 slot at birth to about 10 slots by age five years
At one time in his life, Edward could name every province in Canada. Somehow this information has disappeared from where it was being held. Information-processing theorists would most likely argue that this is a failure of the _____ system.
Which statement concerning memory is true?
Explicit memory increases in capacity from infancy through adulthood then declines, while implicit memory capacity is constant across the lifespan.
Cognitive psychologists believe that humans are capable of engaging in "parallel processing." This means that humans can
carry out several mental activities at the same time
The Chi (1978) study on memory for chess pieces indicated that when recalling information in their area of expertise, expert children perform
better than novice adults
The best example of elaboration is
noting that the red chair and the green piano remind you of last year's Christmas party.
As Josephine has a production deficiency, she
doesn't produce useful strategies on her own
Which memory strategy is being used when a long number is memorized by breaking it into manageable subunits each containing three digits?
Research comparing elderly hearing Americans, deaf Americans, and hearing Chinese demonstrated the effect that _____ can have on memory performance.
negative stereotypes
If short-term memory capacity is "domain-specific," then
the more you know about something, the larger short-term memory capacity size will be for related items
Why can't a lack of language be used to fully account for infantile amnesia?
Because the "amnesia" includes the inability to recall non-verbal information like faces
Childhood or infantile amnesia is defined as the inability to access _____ memories.
Children whose IQ scores fluctuate tend to come from unstable home environments.
According to triarchic theory, person with "street smarts" possesses high levels of _____ intelligence.
Sternberg would argue that an individual who is outstanding at filtering out irrelevant from relevant information excels on the _____ component of intelligence.
The cumulative-deficit hypothesis is often used to explain
how the negative effects of an impoverished environment "snowball" over time to create lowered IQ scores.
Creative achievement requires
both enthusiasm and experience
Research has shown that children who participate in early intervention programs
show immediate gains in IQ, but the gains fade after the programs end
Concerning creativity, ideation is to elaboration as
generating is to exciting
The analytic component focuses exclusively on
information processing skills
Which of the following can we conclude about intellectual functioning across the lifespan?
The speed with which someone processes information is related to intellectual performance.
Which statement best describes Kaufman's (2001) findings on the pattern of IQ change from young adulthood though old age generated by cross-sectional studies?
IQ scores rise gradually until middle age (age 40-50) then decline slowly until old age (around 80) when the decline accelerates
Which statement is true?
During adolescence, IQ scores become more predictable but creativity seems to wax and wane.
What has been shown to increase the IQ scores of disadvantaged children from minority racial and ethnic groups?`
Telling the child that the exam was not going to be scored
An information-processing theorist focusing on intelligence testing would be most likely interested in
how children solve problems on the test
The major focus of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development is to assess intelligence by measuring
the rate at which infants achieve developmental milestones
Research would predict that _____ would show the largest intellectual declines in the coming years.
69-year-old May, who lives alone and is socially inactive,
Sternberg's practical component defines intelligence differently depending on the sociocultural context in which it is displayed.
The concept of stereotypic threat is most often used to explain the lower IQ scores found in
african americans
The STAT test
includes an essay
A large-scale study on intelligence, income, and occupational prestige by Judge, Klinger, and Simon (2010) found that
general intelligence was significantly related to both income and occupational prestige.
Cleopatra has an outstanding sense of her own feelings. This ability is best associated with Gardner's _____ type of intelligence.
Chomsky proposed that humans are born with a common set of rules and properties for learning any language in the world.
Ability grouping has been shown to be a highly effective technique for improving academic performance for most school-age children.
Which best summarizes Elkind's opinion on products like the "Baby Einstein" DVD and the "Baby Mozart" CD?
Be careful as it may result in children with less self-initiation and intrinsic Moderate.
Which family characteristic is NOT associated with lower achievement?
having a parent who uses consistent discipline
Which finding would be most difficult to explain from the nativist perspective of language acquisition?
Children exhibit remarkable cultural differences in early language learning.
Nadine's father says, "Look at that ferret with that man." She has never before heard the term "ferret," but because of where the term occurred in her dad's statement, she is sure that it refers the little furry animal that the man has on a leash. Nadine's ability to ascertain the meaning of the word "ferret" was accomplished using
syntactic bootstrapping
Which best reflects the nurture-based research on language acquisition?
Frequent caregiver conversation involving questions encourages language development in children.
"Go school" is an example of telegraphic speech.
Research on the transition from elementary school into the next level of education has shown that
when adolescents make a change is more important than the characteristics of their new school.
Which of the following claims does Chomsky make regarding language acquisition?
Humans have an inborn mechanism for sifting through the language they hear and generating rules for that language.
Erin has a high level of mastery orientation. Given this fact, her most likely response to failing a test would be to
believe that trying harder on the next test will lead to success
Which have been shown to be the best predictors of effectiveness of schools?
Task-oriented atmosphere, strong emphasis on academics, and effective discipline
Concerning language, Broca's area is to Wenicke's area as
production to comprehension
Which statement concerning ability grouping is FALSE?
Using ability grouping appears to significantly increase a school's effectiveness.
A holophrase always contains at least two words.
Which best describes achievement Moderate during adulthood?
Achievement Moderate is more affected by work and family context than by the process of aging.
Toddlers substantially increase their vocabulary when they
realize that everything has a name
Which appears to have the LEAST impact on a school's effectiveness?
reduced class size from 35 to 25
Research has shown that _____ had the largest percentage of students scoring in the top 10 percent on math and science tests.
Research on language acquisition among deaf children has shown that
deaf infants "babble" in sign language in the same manner as hearing infants "babble" in spoken language.
Which statement concerning self-esteem development is true?
Older individuals may retain a high sense of self-image by reducing the ideal-real self gap.
Which statement best exemplifies the concept of self-esteem?
all in all, i am a worthless individual
A significant change in self-description that appears at about age eight is a shift from descriptions focusing on
physical characteristics to descriptions focusing on social qualities
Research on the big-fish-little-pond effect suggests that
placing children with learning disabilities in a regular education room may negatively impact their self-esteem.
The debate concerning successful aging in old age involves the _____ debate.
Holding a negative image (stereotype) of aging
can lead to physically slower behavior in older adulthood
Self-esteem rating tends to be highest in people in their
In Thomas and Chess's longitudinal study of temperament, the largest percent of infants were
classified as easy
Nine-month-old Elmer sees a rabbit in the yard. He then looks at his father, Fudd, and tries to direct Fudd's focus toward the bunny by pointing at the hopping rabbit. Elmer's behavior illustrates the process of _____ as an indicator of an emerging self-awareness.
joint attention
Research on women's vocation development has found that
giving birth can negatively impact a woman's earning potential
Self-esteem refers an overall evaluation of your worth.
Parents living in an individualistic culture tend to socialize children to be
As she nears her 100th birthday, Kijana, though remaining happy, has begun to become much less involved with her church and other social groups. Ruth's reaction to aging best fits with the _____ theory concerning successful aging.
Which word can be used as a mnemonic cue for recalling the Big Five traits that is based on the first letter in each trait?
The "ideal self" is who we wish others would be.
What is the best advice concerning successful aging?
Elderly people should be encouraged to find a good fit between their personality, preferences, and the environment in which they live.
Which of the following utterances clearly demonstrates that an infant has developed a categorical sense of self?
I big girl
After months of consideration, college sophomore Burrhus has just come to the conclusion that a career in psychology is the right thing for him. As a result, he has just switched to a psychology major and has signed up for several psychology courses for the next semester. Concerning his career plans, Burrhus appears to be in the _____ status stage.
identity achievement
Children who are behaviorally inhibited are
high in neuroticism and low in extraversion
For Britta, the novelty of retirement has begun to wear off and she suddenly finds herself feeling quite unhappy. This indicates that Britta has entered the _____ phase of retirement.