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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

what is Tidal Volume (TV)?

the fluctuation of volume during normal inspiration and expiration

what is inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)?

the difference between maximum tidal volume and maximum total lung capacity

what is expiratory reserve volume (ERV)?

the difference between the minimum tidal volume and the max extra volume of air that one can expire

what is residual volume (RV)?

the volume of air that remains in lungs after one's most forceful expiration

what Is vital capacity (VC)?


what is functional reserve capacity (FRC)?


what do chemo receptors do?

monitor changes in pH, PaC02 and Pa02; stimulation= increased ventilation

what is Boyles law?

pressure is inversely related to volume;

Inhale: lower diaphragm, volume increases, pressure decreases in lungs

increases, pressure decreases in lungs

what are the main muscles of inspiration?

external intercostal muscles


what are the accessory muscles of inspiration?

sternocleidomastoid muscles

scalene muscles (used during exercise when TV is increased)

what are the accessory muscles of expiration?

abdominal muscles

internal intercostal muscles (used when TV is high during exercise, coughing, or when there is an airway obstruction )

how does surface tension affect the lungs?

water molecules have tendency to adhere to each other on the alveoli and this makes expansion difficult

what is the role of surfactant ?

Helps to separate water molecules on the alveoli and decrease surface tension

what is elastic recoil ?

the tendency of the lungs to return to original shape after inspiration

what is compliance?

how well the lungs and chest wall can be stretched

what Is airway resistance?

resistance of respiratory tract to airflow during inspiration and expiration (more resistance= less airflow)

what are the 2 ways oxygen can be transported?

1. dissolved in plasma

2. bound to hemoglobin

how do you calculate O2 content?

O2 content= (Hb x SaO2 x 1.34) + (PaO2 x 0.003)

what are the 3 ways that carbon dioxide Is transported?

1. dissolved in plasma

2. through bicarbonate

3. carbamino compounds (bound to blood proteins)

how do you calculate TV?

size of breath= breathing rate x volume of air per breath (L/min)

what is hypercapnia?

alveolar hypoventilation; decreased TV; resp acidosis; high PaC02 causes cerebral vasodilation; increased ICP

what is the most common cause of hypercapnia?

resp depression

what is hypoxemia?

decreased Pa02; ventilation-perfusion abnormalities (shunting)

what are the causes of hypoxemia?

high altitude, hypoventilation, fibrosis,pulmonary edema

what is pulmonary edema?

fluid accumulation in the air spaces and parenchyma of the lungs; dyspnea, resp crackles, hypoxemia

what are the 3 causes of pulmonary edema ?

1. valvular dysfunction, CAD, Left ventricular dysfunction

2. injury to capillary endothelium

3. blockage of lymphatic vessels

what are the common obstructive disorders?

asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis

what is asthma?

inflammed and narrowed airways; certain irritants and allergens can worsen this; wheezing, coughing, SOB, mucus secretions

what is COPD?

combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis

what is the most common cause Of COPD?


what is chronic bronchitis?

hypersecretion of mucus and chronic productive cough (@least 3 months x 2 consec. yrs); mucus traps bacteria and impairs cilia

what is emphysema?

enlarged airways, destruction of alveolar walls , loss of elastic recoil

what are the bacteria that cause community aquired pneumonia?

strep. pneumoniae, H. influenza, moraxella catarrhalis, S. aureus, rhino virus

what is tuberculosis?

highly contagious airborne infection; bacillus survives macrophage eating and replicates by eating each other, macrophages seal off bacillus colonies and form tubercle; positive PPD skin test