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A reads text to speech;

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the [3] imperatives of speech?
-Social -Consumer -Intellectual
What is the “skyhook” principle?
Finding some common ground with listeners
What is the difference between “ethos” and “ethics?”
Ethics = morals framework
Ethos = credibility or “good sense,” “good will,” “good morals”
What [4] elements create “public speaking as an interactive process?
Speaker Message Listener(s) Context
What are the 4 characteristics of “orality?”
1) Integrative
2) Redundant
3) Concrete
4) Situational
What is the difference between “general” and “specific” purpose statements?
Gen = to inform persuade entertain
Spec. = to inform persuade entertain about…
Which of the following statements is a “specific purpose statement?”
To Inform
To Inform about robots
A robot is a complex apparatus
ANS: To Inform about robots
What is another word for a “central idea”
Thesis Statement
What are 6 ways to develop confident delivery?
Realize nervousness = normal
Focus on ideas
Look at listeners (eye contact)
Relax body
Speak in public often
What are the 5 barriers to “good listening?”
Passive listening
Drifting thoughts
Trigger Words
Physical Distractions
Self-fulfilling prophecy
What are some ways [3] listeners are misguided?
Speakers’ use of % rather than absolute #s
Characteristics of the sample (2/3 people…)
Hasty generalization
What are the 5 listening purposes?
Appreciative (focus outside verbal content)
Discriminatory (draw conclusions from HOW the message is presented)
Empathic (provides emotional support for speaker)
Comprehension (Gaining information)
Critical (Interpreting message for strengths & weaknesses)
When listening for comprehension what questions should you ask?
What are the main ideas?
How are the main ideas arranged/organized?
What kinds of materials support the main ideas?
What is culture?
“A social group’s system of meanings”
What is “subculture?”
“smaller groups of people that define their lifestyles, by how they are different from the dominant culture.”
What is “Multiculturalism?”
Understanding how cultures are multi-faceted. For instance the U.S. is NOT a unified culture it is a country made up of subcultures and powerful co-cultures.
What are 3 strategies to negotiating difference?
Accept multiple paths to goals
Choose a rhetorical frame
Maintain self-identity in face of difference
What is a rhetorical frame?
Orientation that will be accepted by listeners
What types of rhetorical frames might you use?
Narrative frames
Valuative frames
What types of [5] things make up demographic analysis
Age gender education group membership cultural background etc.
What are the [3] elements of psychological analysis?
Beliefs attitudes & values
What types[7] of strategies should you use when handling hostile audiences?
Establish goodwill
Start with ideas of agreement
Offer principles of judgment/framing
Develop your personal credibility
Use favorable supporting materials
Use humor
Use multi-sided presentation
How might you use “audience segmentation” in your audience analysis?
Divide listeners into a series of “target populations” to adapt to the audience.
How can audience [3] analysis help you prepare your speech?
Develop speaking goals
Develop specific purposes
Develop appeals
What is the difference between primary & secondary sources?
Primary = eyewitness/firsthand accounts
Secondary = accounts based on other sources
What are the 5 functions of supporting materials?
Complex/abstract ideas benefit from the use of specific information
If you have a hostile audience use statistics & testimony
Supporting materials enhance speaker credibility
Supporting materials provide fodder for discussion
Examples create human interest statistics provide reasonable proof
When using statistics what 4 tips should you follow?
Translate complex numbers
Round off complicated numbers
Use visual materials to clarify when possible
Use statistics fairly
What are the 8 informative speech organizational patterns?
Familiarity Acceptance
Inquiry Order
Question-Answer Order
Problem-Solution Order
Elimination Order
What is the difference between a “rough draft” outline and a “speaking” outline?
Rough draft = establishes topic- clarifies purpose- and identifies reason number of subtopics
Speaking = uses key words or phrases to jog your memory when you deliver your speech
What [3] specific outlining steps will help you and your listeners remember what you’re talking about?
- Magic Numbers (5+2 or 5-2)
- Chunking
- Mnemonics
What are the 6 following factors of attention?
Activity (Choose active verbs, dynamic stories, short segments)
Reality (Concrete concepts, specifics)
Vital (matters related to health, reputation, property, employment)
Proximity (nearness to familiar people/things/places)
Familiarity (Help listeners identify with you)
Novelty (newness/ blending old & new)
What are the 3 qualities that make up clear oral style?
How might you [4] deploy gender-neutral language?
Speak in plural
Use “he” or “she” when you must use singular
Remove gender inflections
Use gender-specific pro-nouns for gender-specific processes, people, or activities
What are the four dimensions of non-verbal communication discussed in chapter 10?
Proxemics (particularly the physical arrangement of the room and distance from the audience)
Movement and stance (including posture)
Facial expressions
Gestures (conventional, descriptive and indicators)
What are the four methods of speech delivery?
When is it appropriate to memorize your speech?
Rarely, but perhaps when notecards or a teleprompter cannot be used (Adjusting the speech to audience feedback is very difficult when a speech is memorized.)
When is it appropriate to use a manuscript for your speech?
When exact wording or precise timing is extremely important (Manuscripts work best with a teleprompter)
When do speakers use impromptu speech?
On the spur of the moment with minimal preparation (Impromptu speeches should be focused on a single idea)
When is it appropriate to deliver an extemporaneous speech?
Most occasions a prepared speech is requested
What are the benefits of extemporaneous speeches?
The are more vigorous, flexible and spontaneous because they are prepared, but not limited by predetermined words and phrases.
What [4] factors should cause you to slow down your rate of speech?
Larger audiences, especially outdoors
Competing sounds such as fans, traffic, etc.
Echo in the room
Feedback from audience
How can you utilize pauses in your speech?
To create suspense (before a point)
To add emphasis (after a point)

How can you use vocal variety to keep your speech interesting?,
Vary the rate of speech
Change your pitch
Use stress effectively
Utilize pauses when appropriate
How do visual aids enhance a speech presentation?
They help the listener comprehend and remember the speech.
What [3] strategies should be used for selecting visual media?
Evaluate the audience and occasion to determine the most effective tools
Integrate verbal and visual materials (visuals should complement what is said)
Evaluate the potential of computer-generated visual materials
How can you get the maximum benefit from [4] visual aids?
Use color
Keep it simple
Make sure visuals are large enough to be seen
Keep it neat