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47 Cards in this Set

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veterinary public health

sum of all contributions to physical, mental and social well being of humans through an understanding and application of veterinary science

public health

the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health and efficiency through organized community effort

veterinary roles in public health

emerging dz, bioterrorism, disaster preparedness, food safety, occupational and environmental health, human-animal bond, vaccines

CDC

national notifiable diseases surveillance system

USDA

national animal health reporting system

where oregon veterinarians report to

Oregon health authority, veterinary public health

factors that affect disease detection and reporting

patient sick enough?


appropriate diagnostics done?


appropriate specimens taken?


Appropriate time of showing disease?

passive surveillance

reports recieved from physicians or other individuals or instituitions as mandated by law

active surveillance

regularly contact with reporting sources

syndromic surveillance

monitor disease indicators in real-time or near real time


goal = earlier detection of an outbreak

zoonoses

dz and infections that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans

reverse zoonoses

pathogens reservoired in humans that can be transmitted to other vertebrates

anthropozoonosis

disease transmitted from animals to humans

emerging infectious disease (EID)

newly appeared in a population or has existed but rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range

Re-emerging infectious disease

reappeared after a significant decline in incidence

examples of emerging infectious diseases

new infections resulting from evolution, known infections in new geographic ranges/populations, unrecognized infections appearing in areas under ecologic change, old infections with antimicrobial resistance

factors in infectious disease emergence

ecological change


human demographics and behavior


international travel and commerce


tech and industry


microbial adaptation


breakdown of public health infrastructure

epidemiologic triad

host


agent


environmental factors



institute of medicine recommendations

strengthen disease surveillance


expand research on factors leading to emergence


develop/manage vaccines, antimicrobials


improve coordinating public health agencies


support public health training


develop public education to prevent disease

transmission - contact

most common type of transmission


direct or indirect (bites, scratches, saliva...etc)

types of transmission

contact


contamination of food


ingestion


biological vectors

Risk group 1 agents

agents that are not associated with disease in healthy adult animals


low individual and community risk

risk group 2 agents

agents that are associated with human disease which is rarely serious and for which preventative or therapeutic interventions are often available and the risk of spreading infection is limited


MODerate individual risk and low community risk

risk group 3 agents

agents that are associated with serious or lethal human disease for which preventive or therapeutic interventions may be available


HIGH individual risk, low community risk

risk group 4 agents

agents that are likely to cause serious or lethal human disease for which preventive or therapeutic interventions are not usually available


HIGH individual AND community risk

reproductive zoonotic diseases

Coxiella burnetii, brucella, toxoplasma, borrelia, listeria, pasteurella, arenaviruses

PPE

personal protective equipment


provides a barrier between you and pathogens or allergens

when to use gloves

touching - blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, mucous membranes, non-intact skin


Performing - dentistry, necropsy, resuscitations, obstetrics


handling - dirty laundry, dx specimens, animals with suspected disease

facial protection

mask


safety glasses


goggles


face shield

dust masks and surgical masks are...

....not respirators and do not protect against airborne pathogens

wear a respirator when...

investigating - abortions, avian mortality


conditions where aerosol transmission is suspected


dusty conditions


handling sick parrots

change outerwear when

its soiled


after handing infectious animal


after working in isolation rooms


after a necropsy or high risk procedure

wash hands when...

before and after each patient


after contact with patient fluids


after removal of gloves/sleeves


after cleaning cages


before eating, drinking, smoking or handling contacts

how you can modify working practices

personal protective equipment


hand hygiene


environmental measures


medical management

one health

the concept that the health of animals/people and the viability of ecosystems are inextricably linked

tiered response in disaster preparedness

local->state->federal government

local government responsibilities in diseasters

treat injured


provide law enforcement


restore critical infrastructure


shelter evacuees


manage resources


determine needs and shortfalls


incorporate/request state and federal assets

state responsibilities in diseasters

deploy state resources (food, ice, supplies)


law enforcement assets


public works teams


specialized technical assistance


national guard assets


serve as conduit for federal assistance

federal responsibilities in disasters

restore critical infrastructure- utilities, transportation, telecommunications


restore essential government services


protect the environment

Foreign animal disease response

detect/identify the disease ASAP


protect human health


eradicate infection (protect animal health)


preserve markets


local, state, regional and national level coordination

rabies

causes an acute encephalitis in all warm blooded hosts, including humans and the outcome is almost always fatal

transmission of rabies

when infected saliva of a host is passed to an uninfected animals- also happens through mucous membranes and corneas

vaccine rule for rabies

all dogs at least 3 months shall be immunized against rabies by 6 months

animal bites to humans

animal will be held for observation until the tenth day following the bite

In the case of an animal biting a person

no person shall destroy or allow to be detroyed without authorization by the local health officer or administrator

possibly rabid animal bites pet currently vaccinated for rabies

re-vaccinate +45 days quarantine

possibly rabid animal bites pet NOT currently vaccinated for rabies

euthanasia or revaccinate + 6 months quarantine