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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which 3 factors determine how quickly somatosensory information is processed?
Diameter of axons
Degree of axonal myelination
Number of synapses in the pathway
What is perception?
The interpretation of sensation into meaningful forms.
Where does perception occur?
What are 3 general classifications of somatosensory receptors?
Which receptors respond as long as a stimulus is maintained?
Which receptors adapt to a constant stimulus and then stop responding?
Nociceptors are sensitive to what kind of stimuli?
Stimuli that damage or threaten to damage tissue.
How many axons to peripheral sensory neurons have?
What is the order of conduction velocity of sensory axons?
A-beta (II)
Which axons conduct impulse from receptor to cell body?
Which axons conduct impulse from cell body to spinal cord or brain stem?
Which receptive fields are smaller, distal or proximal?
Which peripheral axons deal with proprioception?
Where are Ia peripheral axons located?
Muscle spindles
Where are Ib peripheral axons located?
Ligament receptors
Where are II peripheral axons located?
Muscle spindles
Which peripheral axons deal with cutaneous and subcutaneous touch and pressure?
Where are A-beta peripheral axons located?
Hair Follicle
Which peripheral axons deal with pain and temperature?
Where are A-delta peripheral axons located?
Free nerve endings
Where are C peripheral nerve endings located?
Free nerve endings
Which receptors reacts to muscle stretch?
Muscle spindle
Which receptors react to tendon tension?
Which receptor reacts to ligament tension?
Ligament receptors
Which receptor reacts to joint movement?
Which receptors react to touch and vibration?
Which receptor reacts to skin stretch?
Which receptors react to pressure?
Hair follicle
Which receptors reacts to tissue damage, temperature, and coarse touch?
Which receptors react to tissue damage, temperature, itch, and tickle?
Which receptors are superficial?
Hair Follicles
Free nerve endings
Which receptors are subcutaneous?
What is external skin that naturally is hairless? It is found on the ventral portion of the fingers, palmar surfaces of hands, soles of feet, and lips?
Glabrous Skin
Free nerve ending information is carried via which peripheral axons?
What is a?
Gamma efferents
What is b?
Striated Muscle
What is c?
What is d?
What is e?
Primary nerve endings
What is f?
Nuclear chain fiber
What is g?
Nuclear bag fiber
What is h?
What is i?
Secondary endings
What is j?
Gamma efferents
Which afferents register quick and tonic stretch?
Type I
Do primary endings respond tonically or phasically?
Do secondary ending respond tonically or phasically?
What’s the role of paciniform corpuscles and ruffini’s in joint proprioception?
Ruffini’s- signal extremes of joint range and respond more to passive than to active movement
Paciniform- respond to movement, but not when joint position is constant
1st order neurons convey information from where to where?
Receptors to medulla
2nd order neurons convey information from where to where?
Medulla to thalamus
3rd order neurons convey information from where to where?
Thalamus to cerebral cortex
How does descriminitive touch from the face differ?
The conduction travels directly to the pons then backtracks to the upper and then lower medulla, and then back to the upper medulla, pons, and then the midbrain.
Which area does the fasciculus cuneatus relay?
Upper body
Which area does the fasciculus gracilis relay?
Lower body
What information is carried in the anterolateral columns?
Transmits discriminative information about pain and temperature and course touch.
What's the difference between the neo and paleospinothalamic tracts?
Both the neospinothalamic and paleospinothalamic tracts process the sensations of pain. Neo deals with fast pain and paleo deals with slow pain.
Which primary sensory information is carried contralaterally?
Which primary sensory information is carried ipsilaterally?
What is absence of pain in response to stimuli that would normally be painful?
What indicates that a single lesion can cause pain to be lost on the side of the face ipsilateral to the lesion and on the opposite side of the body?
Crossed analgesia
What is a polymodal afferent?
The afferent neuron has the feature of having multiple stimulus modalities (e.g. they include free nerve endings).
What are the most populous type of neurons whose cell bodies are located in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and are responsive to all sensory modalities (thermal, chemical and mechanical) and a broad range of intensity of stimulation from peripheral nerves. They steadily increase their firing rate as the stimulus intensity rises into the noxious range
Wide dynamic range neurons
What are the 3 types of ataxia?
Which type of ataxia doesn't get better regardless of lying, sitting or standing?
What method exerts pressure on the skin with a monofilament?
Tactile Threshold
What is gentle poking with a pin interspersed with light touches with the blunt end of the pin?
Sharp, fast pain
what is light touching of two points on the skin, using smaller distances between the points until the points can no longer be distinguished as separate points?
Two-point discrimination
What is light touching of both sides of the body simultaneously?
Bilateral stimulation touch
What is drawing a line (using a dull point) on the the subject's skin?
Directional cutaneous kinesthesia
What is the test that uses electrical stimulation of the skin over a peripheral nerve with recording of the resulting ectrical activity from the skin over the upper cervical region or from the scalp over the primary somatosensory cortex?
Somatosensory evoked potential
What is the test that uses ectrical stimulation of the skin over a peripheral nerve and records electrical activity from the skin over another point along the same peripheral nerve?
Nerve conduction studies
Why does peripheral demyelination often affect proprioception and vibratory sense more severely than temperature discrimination?
Demyelination of axons affect most severely proprioception because the large axons
are the most heavily myelinated.
What are painful eruptions on the skin in a unilateral single dermatome distribution?
Varicella Zoster
What is loss of all sensations (except proprioception from the face) from the right side of the face and body. All sensations intact on the left side of the face and body.
Lesion of the left posterolateral region of the rostral pons or the midbrain
What is complete loss of all sensations bilaterally, below the L2 dermatone (sensation in the L1 dermatome is intact, sensation is impaired in the L2 dermatome)?
Complete transection of the spinal cord
What is loss of pain and temperature sensation from the left face combined with loss of pain and temperature sensation from the right side of the body?
Lesions in the left posterolateral medulla and lower pons
What is loss of conscious proprioception, two-point discrimination, and vibration sense bilaterally below the T10 dermatome?
Lesion to the dorsal column of spinal cord
What is loss of pain and temperature information from the left lower limb below the L4 dermatome, complete loss of discriminative touch and conscious proprioception information from the right lower limb below the L2 dermatome, and loss of voluntary control of the right lower limb below the L2 dermatome?
Brown-Sequard syndrome produced by a hemisection of the cord at L2 on the right side
What is awareness of stimuli on only one side of the body when both sides of the body are simultaneously stimulated?
Sensory extinction
What is the role of enkaphalin in the spinal cord?
Decrease substance P from primary afferent
Hyperpolarization of spinal interneurons in the pain pathway
When the raphe nuclei are stimulated, which neurotransmitter is released at the axon terminal in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord?
Where is the Raphe nuclei located?
Where is the periaqueductal gray matter located?
Where is the locus ceruleus located?
Where do non-narcotic analgesics decrease the synthesis of prostoglandins?
Where is the stimulation of opiod receptors and descending inhibition?
Periaqueductal gray matter, raphe nuclei, and locus ceruleus
Where does hormone regulation occur?
Pituitary gland
Adrenal Medulla
Where are the inhibitory interneurons that release enkephalins controlled from?
Dorsal horn of spinal cord
What controls expectations, distraction, placebos, and excitement?
Cerebral cortex
What is the primary precipitating factor in the development of CRPS?
Severe, spontaneous pain, out of proprioception to the original injury; disuse of the limb
What is sharp pain in the low back immediately after an attempt to lift a heavy object?
Acute pain
What is a pain caused by a tumor pressing on nociceptors in the spinal cord meninges?
Nociceptive chronic pain
What is phantom limb pain?
Neuropathic chronic pain?
What is gallbladder pain perceived as originating in the right subscapular region?
Referred pain
What type of pain in fibromyalgia?
Chronic pain syndrome
Muscle atrophy, osteoporosis, and arthritic changes characterize the late stages of what?
Complex regional pain syndrome
Ectopic foci associated with peripheral neuropathy is associated with what?
Tinel's sign
Migrain symptoms are thought to be related to amplification of proprioceptive signals in which pathway?
Trigeminothalamocortical pathway
The cause of pain from tissue damage to physical impairment as a result of LBP consists of which of the following?
Muscle guarding
Abnormal Movement
Disuse syndrome
What are the 3 type of ataxia?
What type of ataxia is evident regardless of lying down, sitting, or standing?
What is the order in which sensory loss occurs?
Fine touch and proprioception
Fast Pain
Slow Pain
Sensation of pain in response to normally nonpainful stimuli
Top-down inhibition of pain signals.
What is the theory that inhibition of nociceptive signals by stimulation of non-nociceptive receptors occurs in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord?
Counterirritant Theory
What is the theory of transmission of pain information can be blocked in the dorsal horn by stimulation of large-fiber primary afferent neurons?
Gate Theory of Pain
What are symptoms of neuropathic pain?
Secondary Hyperalgesia
What is paresthesia?
Nonpainful abnormal sensation, often described as pricking and tingling
What is dysesthesia?
Painful abnormal sensation, including burning and aching sensations
What is secondary hyperalgesia?
Excessive sensitivity to stimuli that are normally mildly painful in uninjured tissue