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41 Cards in this Set

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Dendrites

Large and small branches of the neuron which receive messages from other neurons through multiple molecular receptors

Similar to tree branches

Cell Body (Soma)

Contains vital parts of the cell including nucleus, mitochondria, cytoplasm, etc

Structure of Neuron

Axon

Long slender tube that carries messages from the soma to its terminal buttons

Tube between cell body and terminal button

Terminal buttons

Found at the ends of the axon containing small sacks or vesicles that hold chemical messengers or neurotransmitters

End of the structure of a neuron

Synaptic Action (Synapse)

Buttons deliver neurotransmitters to other neurons across a physical gap

Between the terminal button of one neuron and a dendrite of another/ or between a terminal button on one neuron and the soma of another

Neuronal Communication

Electronically (within the neuron) and Chemically (between neurons)

In central nervous system (CNS)

Endogenous

Come from within the body (i.e. Endorphins, insulin, adrenalin)

i.e. Endorphins, insulin, adrenalin

Exogenous

Come from outside the body and the introduced inside

I.e. Caffeine, vitamins, herbs, medications

How does information flow through neurons?

Dendrites collect electrical signals> cell body integrates incoming signals and generates outgoing signal to axon> axon passes electrical signals to dendrites of another cell or to an effector cell

The beginning, middle, and end of information flow

Electrical properties of neural transmission

All about the difference in ion concentrations inside and outside the cell

Contains 4 properties

Four properties of electrical neural transmission

Resting potential, depolarized, action potential, hyperpolarized

R,D,A,H

Resting Potential

The unexcited resting state in which the average electrical difference between the inside and the outside of the cell is about -70 mV

Outside being more negative

Depolarized

The cell is significantly stimulated generating a message/electrical impulse

Two types of messages

Inhibitory Message

Decrease likelihood message will be sent

Chances lowered

Excitory Message

Increases likelihood message will be sent

Heighten chances

Action Potential

The electrical message/impulse which is produced when a neuron's resting potential becomes depolarized

Less negative inside

Hyperpolarized

The cell briefly becomes more polarized before it returns to a relaxed state

No action

Chemical Neural Transmission

All about bridging the synapse

Exocytosis


Signal Transduction

Exocytosis

When the action potential reaches the terminal buttons, neurotransmitters are released by this process

Four Stages

Exocytosis Stage 1

Axon potential travels along axon to terminal button

Exocytosis Stage 2

Action potential causes vesicles to fuse with presynaptic membrane

Combining or fusing one thing to another

Exocytosis Stage 3

Action potential causes calcium ions to release vesicles of neurotransmitters into synapse

The message/impulse produced at resting potential

Exocytosis Stage 4

Neurotransmitters release into synapse

The actual release

Signal transduction

Postsynaptic membrane receives message

Ligand-gated ion channel receptor/ G protein-linked receptor

Postsynaptic Membrane

When neurotransmitters are received by receptors on postsynaptic membrane

Occurs either during hyperpolarization or depolarization

Ligand-gated ion channel receptor

An ion channel opens when a ligand binds to the receptor site,

Then EITHER hyperpolarization or deplolarization occur

G protein-linked receptor

Chemical effects activate a 2nd messenger inside the cell (most famous is cyclic AMP)

Aka "the second messenger approach"

Three main neurotransmitters involved:

Catecholamines: Dopamine and Norepinephrine


Indolamine: Serotonin

Emotion and behavior

Three main amino acids involved

GABA, Glycine, Glutamate

Emotion and behavior: 3 G's

Dopamine and Norepinephrine

-synthesized from tyrosine (amino acid that comes from diet)


-starts as food>converts to L-DOPA> to dopamine> then some into norepinephrine


-thought to mediate anxiety, fear, and stress responses

Closely related

Serotonin

Synthesized from tryptophan (from diet)


-starts as food> then converted to 5-HTP> then produces serotonin


-mood, anxiety, arousal, irritability, cognition, appetite, sleep-wake cycles and obsessions

Indolamine

Agonist

Chemical compound that activates the receptor site to cause some sort of biochemical cascade via structural change in the receptor protein/ increases the availability or action of a neurotransmitter

aGOnists

Affinity

The degree of attraction between a molecule and its receptor

Efficacy

The degree to which a compound may bind to receptor site, and initiate a biochemical cascade

Partial Agonist

Bind to and activate a given receptor but have only partial efficacy at the receptor compared to a full agonist

Ways that drugs can agonize

Stimulate release


Receptor binding


Inhibition of reputable


Inhibition of deactivation


Promote synthesis

Antagonist

-Produce no cellular effect after binding to a receptor site (low efficacy, variable affinity)


-By binding the can "block" receptor sites and prevent other agonists or antagonists from binding


-Decreases the availability or action of a neurotransmitter

ant(I)agonists

Ways that's drugs can antagonize

-block release


-receptor blocker


-prevent synthesis

Central Nervous System (CNS)

-Brain


-Spinal Cord

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

-Autonomic


-Somatic


-Sympathetic


-Parasympathetic

Homeostasis

-the body wants to return to a balance