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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Label we attach to a set of symptoms that occur together
Set of symptoms that represent a psychological disorder
*not everyone experiences the same symptoms at the same severity
evaluating past experiences and selecting and comparing information about a specific individual or event
tendency to generalize, and is typical for the natural sciences. It describes the effort to derive laws that explain objective phenomena in general.
Diagnostic Classification
Categories based on commonalities
The branch of science concerned with classification, esp. of organisms; systematics.
The branch of medical science dealing with the classification of diseases.
The devising or choosing of names for things, esp. in a science or other discipline.
Nature and Form of Approach
Classical (or pure) category
Critical Issues
-decreases bias
-improved coherence
Treatment Planning
DSM I (1952) DSM II
Low precision
Very Vague
Based on unproven theories
Poor reliable
Highly psychodynamic
Anxiety Neurosis
Due to internal conflicts
Various manifestations
DSM III (1980) DSM III-R (1987)
Removal of the term "neurosis"
Multiaxial System
Low relaiblity
Reliance on consensus
Clear inclusion and exclusion criteria
Broad categorization headings
Empirically grounded
Prototypic approach
The Five DSM IV Axes
I. Major Disorders
II. Stable, enduring problems
III. Medical Conditions
IV. Psychosocial Problems
V. Rating of adaptive functioning
The state of tension and apprehension that is a natural response to a perceived threat
Anxiety Disorders
The frequency and intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situations that trigger them, and the anxiety interfered with daily life
Four Components of Anxiety
Subjective-Emotional: feelings of tension and apprehension
Cognitive: worrisome thoughts and an inability to cope
Physiological: increased heart rate, muscle tension, etc.
Behavioral: avoidance of certain situations, impaired task performance.
Anxiety Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia
Specific Phobias
Social Phobia
Post traumatic Stress Disorder
Obsessive Complusive Disorder
Somatic Symptoms
Muscle tension, fatigue, mental agitation, soreness
Irritable bowel syndrome
Specific Phobia: Animal Type
Typically childhood onset
Specific Phobia: Natural environment type
i.e. storms, heights or water
Typical childhood onset
Specific Phobia: Situational type
i.e. public transportation, tunnels, bridges, elevators, flying, enclosed places
Common in childhood AND in mid twenties
Specific Phobia: Blood-injection-injury type
Seeing blood or injury or receiving injections
Strong vasovagal response
Treatment: Social Phobia
Cognitive-behavioral treatment
-Group settings
Events that precipitate PTSD
Common Traumatic Events
Combat and War-Related Traumas
Violent personal assault
thoughts, images, ideas, or impulses that are persistent, that uncontrollably intrude upon consciousness, and that cause significant anxiety or distress.
Ego-dystonic - separate from the self
repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels he or she must perform.
Treatment: Anxiety Disorders
Somatic management: relaxation techniques to treat physiological symptoms
Cognitive restructuring: identification and modification of negative thoughts that elicit and prolong anxiety
Problem solving: step-by-step active, behaviorally-oriented approach for coping
Exposure: systematic and controlled exposure to the stimuli and situations that are associated with anxiety
Relapse prevention: maintenance and generalization of improvements
Treatment: PTSD
Cognitive behavioral therapy: Systematic desensitization is used to extinguish fear reactions to memories; cognitive techniques are used to challenge irrational thoughts. Prolonged exposure
Stress management: Therapist helps client solve concrete problems to reduce stress; may use thought stopping strategies to quell intrusive thoughts
Biological therapies: Antianxiety and antidepressant drugs are used to reduce symptoms
Acute Stress Disorder
Occurs in response to similar traumas as does PTSD
Diagnosed when symptoms arise within 1 month of exposure to the stressor and last no longer than 4 weeks
At high risk of developing PTSD
Treacherous; stealthy; denoting a disease that progresses gradually with inapparent symptoms.
lasting a long time
Bulimia Nervosa
Binge eating & Compensatory behaviors
Vomiting, diuretics, laxatives
Binge eating: Bulimia Nervosa
Excess amounts of food
Perceived as ‘out of control’
Lab studies: Binges ranged btw 3013-4477 calories
Associated Psychological Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa
Anxiety (75%)
-Social phobia and GAD
Mood disorders (50-70%)
Substance abuse (36.8%)
-Alcohol & Stimulants typically
Pro mia
Medical Consequences: Bulimia Nervosa
Salivary gland enlargement
Erosion of dental enamel
Electrolyte imbalance
Kidney failure
Intestinal problems
Permanent colon damage
Anorexia Nervosa
15% below expected weight
Intense fears
-Gaining weight
-Losing control of eating
Relentless pursuit of thinness
Often begins with dieting
Pro Ana
Anorexia Nervosa: Subtypes
Restricting (most common)
Medical Consequences: Anorexia Nervosa
Dry skin
Brittle hair and nails
Sensitivity to cold temps
Cardiovascular problems
Electrolyte imbalance
Binge-Eating Disorder
Food binges
No compensatory behaviors
Appendix B of DSM-IV-TR
Experimental diagnostic category
Bulimia: Stats
90%-95% caucasion, upper class women
5%-10% caucasion, upper class, gay/bi, athlete men
16-19yrs old
Anorexia: Stats
90%-95% caucasion, middle to upper class women
13-15yrs old
high relapse rate
Causes of Eating Disorders
Cultural imperatives
Ideal body size standards
Media standards
Social and gender standards
Treatment: Bulimia
-May enhance psychological treatment
-No long-term efficacy
CBT (treatment of choice)
Interpersonal psychotherapy
-Prozac (not effective)
Treatment: Anorexia Nervosa
Weight restoration
Target dysfunctional attitudes
Long-term prognosis
Mood Episodes
Major Depressive
Associated Features: Manic Episode
Multiple days without sleep --> still energized
Racing thoughts
risky behavior
increased sociability
Poor judgement
50%-60% depression precedes right after
Mixed Episode
Must meet full criteria for MDE and a Manic Episode
Mood impairment causes dysfunction