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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Founder of Psychology
Wilhelm Wundt
emphasize the study of overt behavior as the subject matter of scientific psychology
Humanistic Psychology
emphasized current environmental influences on our growth potential and our need for love & acceptance
the scientific study of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (inner thoughts and feelings)
American Psychological Association
3 Main Levels of Human Analysis
Biological Influence
Social-cultural influences
Psychological Influences
Neuroscience perspective
focuses on how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
Evolutionary perspective
focuses on how the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes
Behavior Genetics perspective
focuses on how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
Psychodynamic perspective
focuses on how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
Behavioral perspective
focuses on how we learn observable processes
Cognitive perspective
focuses on how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
Social-cultural perspective
focuses on how behavior and thinking vary across situation and culture
Biological Psychologist
a person who explores the links between the brain and the mind (research)
Developmental Psychologist
a person who studies changing abilities from womb to tomb (research)
Cognitive Psychologist
a person who studies how we perceive, think, and solve problems (research)
Personality Psychologist
a person who investigates our persistent traits (research)
Social Psychologist
a person who explores how we view and affect one another (research)
Clinical Psychologist
a person who studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders (applied)
Counseling Psychologist
a person who helps people cope with academic, vocational, and marital challenges (applied)
Educational Psychologist
a person who studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings (applied)
Industrial/Organization Psychologist
a person who studies and advises on behavior in the work place (applied)
Hindsight Bias
"I-knew-it-all-along!" phenomenon; people believe they could predict the outcome AFTER it came to pass
Over Confidence
thinking we know more than we actually know
Scientific Attitude
curiosity-passion for exploration
skepticism-doubting and questioning
humility-ability to accept responsibility when wrong
Critical thinking
1. doesn't accept blind arguments
2. examines assumptions
3. discerns hidden values
4. evaluates evidence
5. assesses conclusions
an explanation that integrates principle and organizes and predicts behavior or evidence (opinion)
a testable prediction
4 steps to experiment
1. theory
2. hypothesis
3. research/observation
4. test/retest
4 Methods of Study
Case study
naturalistic observation
case study
a method where one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral prinicples
self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people
random sampling
each member of a populations has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample
naturalistic observation
observing/recording the behavior of animals in the wild
when one trait or behavior accompanies another
correlation coefficient
statistical measure of relationship
Correlation does not mean ______
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists
the only method that can produce cause & effect
double blind procedure
patients and assistants remain unaware of who is in the control group and who is in the experimental group by RANDOM ASSIGNMENT
independent variable
the factor that is manipulated
dependent variable
the factor that may or may not change in response to the independent variable
most frequently occurring score in a distribution
the average score in a a distribution
the middle score
difference between high and low in a distribution
social psychology
studies how we (1) think about, (2) influence, (3) relate to one another
Social thinking
involves thinking about others
attribution theory
we have a tendency to give casual explanations for someone's behavior (dispositional or situational)
how we react to it.
how we explain someone's behavior affects...
a beliefe and feeling that predisposes a person to respond in a particular way to objects or events
Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
people who comply to a small request will comply to a larger request later
cognitive dissonance
when our attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience tension between our real self and our ideal self.
Social Influence
study of attitudes, beliefs, decisions, and action and the way we are molded
a subtle type of conformity, adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard
Conditions that Strengthen Conformity
1. a person is made to feel incompetent/insecure
2. there are at least 3 people in the group
3. the group is unanimous
4. the person admires group status and attractiveness
5. the person has no prior commitment to a response
6. the group observes the persons behavior
7. the culture strongly encourages respect for a social standard
normative social influence
person desires to gain approval or avoid rejection
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
social facilitation
improved performance on tasks in the presence of others
social loafing
the tendency to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually
loss of self-awareness and self restraint in group situations that faster arousal & anonymity
group polarization
enhances a group's prevailing attitudes through a discussion
mode of thinking that occurs when a desire for harmony in the group overrides the realistic appraisal
an unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group and it's members
beliefs (stereotypes)
emotions (hostility)
predisposition to act (discriminate)
3 components of prejudice
roots of prejudice
social inequalities
social divisions
emotional scapegoating
people with whom one shares a common identity
those perceived as different from one's in-group
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy; reactively (out of hostility) or proactively (a calculated means to an end)
Biology of Aggression
1. genetic influences
2. neural influences
3. biochemical influences
Psychology of Aggression
1. dealing with aversive events
2. learning aggression is rewarding
3. observing models of aggression
4. acquiring social scripts
aggression principle - blocking of an attempt to achieve a desired goal, creates anger -> aggression
bystander intervention
the decision making process for bystander intervention; less likely to help when there's more people around
perceived as incompatibility
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences and require cooperation
understanding developed through talking to one another
a nerve cell
a gap between the axon and dendrite or cell body
bind to the receptors of the receiving neuron into a lock and key mechanism
mimics neurotransmitter and activates the receiving neuron (drug)
blocks the action of the neurotransmitter and inhibits the nerve (poison)
nervous system
consists of all the nerve cells; communication system
2 parts of the automatic portion of the peripheral nervous system
sympathetic (arousing) an parasympathetic (calming)
part of the pns that controls voluntary movements
sensory neurons
carry info from sense receptor to the Central nervous system
motor neurons
carries info from the CNS to the outer nerves