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64 Cards in this Set

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The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
1. Memory (pg. 269)
The processing of information into the memory system – for example, by extracting meaning.
2. Encoding (pg. 270)
The retention of encoded information over time.
3. Storage (pg. 270)
The process of getting information out of memory storage.
4. Retrieval (pg. 270)
The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
5. Sensory Memory (pg. 270)
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
6. Short-Term Memory (pg. 270)
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
7. Long-Term Memory (pg. 270)
A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
8. Working Memory (pg. 271)
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
9. Automatic Processing (pg. 271)
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
10. Effortful Processing (pg. 271)
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
11. Rehearsal (pg. 272)
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
12. Spacing Effect (pg. 272)
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
13. Serial Position Effect (pg. 273)
Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
14. Imagery (pg. 275)
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
15. Mnemonics (pg. 275)
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
16. Chunking (pg. 276)
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
17. Iconic Memory (pg. 277)
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
18. Echoic Memory (pg. 277)
An increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
19. Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
20. Flashbulb Memory (pg. 281)
The loss of memory.
21. Amnesia (pg. 281)
Retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called non-declarative memory)
22. Implicit Memory (pg. 282)
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called declarative memory)
23. Explicit Memory (pg. 282)
A neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage.
24. Hippocampus (pg. 282)
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
25. Recall (pg. 283)
A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
26. Recognition (pg. 283)
A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a 2nd time.
27. Relearning (pg. 283)
The activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one’s perception, memory, or response.
28. Priming (pg. 285)
That eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
29. Déjà vu (pg. 286)
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.
30. Mood-Congruent Memory (pg. 287)
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
1. Proactive Interference (pg. 293)
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
2. Retroactive Interference (pg. 293)
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
3. Repression (pg. 295)
Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event.
4. Misinformation Effect (pg. 296)
Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) This, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.
5. Source Amnesia (pg. 298)
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
1. Cognition (pg. 307)
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
2. Concept (pg. 307)
A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
3. Prototype (pg. 307)
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier – but also more error-prone – use of heuristics.
4. Algorithm (pg. 308)
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
5. Heuristic (pg. 308)
A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
6. Insight (pg. 308)
A tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions.
7. Confirmation Bias (pg. 309)
The inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.
8. Fixation (pg. 310)
The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
9. Functional Fixedness (pg. 310)
Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
10. Representativeness Heuristic (pg. 311)
Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
11. Availability Heuristic (pg. 311)
The tendency to be more confident than correct – to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments.
12. Overconfidence (pg. 312)
The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
13. Framing (pg. 313)
Clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
14. Belief Perseverance (pg. 313)
A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
1. Motivation (pg. 357)
A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
2. Instinct (pg. 357)
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
3. Drive-Reduction Theory (pg. 358)
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
4. Homeostasis (pg. 358)
A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
5. Incentive (pg. 358)
Maslow’s pyramid of human needs beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
6. Hierarchy of Needs (pg. 359)
The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
7. Glucose (pg. 361)
The point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body weight falls below this level, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
8. Set Point (pg. 362)
The 4 stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson – excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
1. Sexual Response Cycle (pg. 375)
A resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
2. Refractory Period (pg. 376)
A problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
3. Sexual Disorder (pg. 376)
A sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
4. Estrogen (pg. 376)
The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
5. Testosterone (pg. 376)
An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).
6. Sexual Orientation (pg. 380)