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114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The term sensation refers to:

the process of detecting physical stimulus arriving from the sense organs and interpreting data

The term perception is defined as the:

manner in which the brain organizes sensations into meaningful patterns

The ear changes sound waves into impulses and the eye changes light waves into impulses. This is an example of:


For vision, the basic elements are lines, sharp edges, spots, and colors. These are called:

perceptual features

By applying pressure to your eyelids for a few seconds you'll see stars, checkerboards, and flashes of color. These light sensations are:


When listening to music, the experience of hearing each tone would be a(n) ________ and interpreting the meaning of the sounds is an example of ______.

sensation; perception

Unlike a cornea, your retina has two types of "film," consisting of receptor cells called:

rodes and cones

The rods are used for vision in ____ light and cones are used for vision in _____ light.

dim; bright

The rods are most numerous in which area of the eye?

periphery of the retina

Which of the following gives us the sharpest images and is involved with visual acuity?


Your text mentioned that the retina has a "hole" in it called:

blind spot

According to the trichromatic theory of color vision:

there are three types of cones, each sensitive to either red, green, or blue

Which of the following can be explained by the opponent-process theory of color vision?


Which theory is correct in explaining color vision in humans?

both the oppponent-process theory and trichromatic theory

The ___________ theory identifies three different types of cones in the retina.


When the eyes adjust to a dark room, there is a dramatic increase in retinal sensitivity to light. This process is called:

dark adaptation

The pain killing effects of acupuncture are partly explained by ______ theory.

gate control

What are the two main types of deafness?

conduction, nerve

What happens when the hair cells become damaged after years of listening to loud rock music?

nerve deafness

Smell and taste receptors respond to what type of stimulus?`


How many basic tastes can people respond to?


The receptors for taste are called:

taste buds

The four primary tastes are:

sweet, sour, salty, bitter

Distance cues that involve both eyes are called _________ cues.


Distance cues that require the use of only one eye are called ____________ cues.


This theory explains the experience of pain is controlled by a series of nerve fibers which pass through a central terminal in the spinal chord:

gate control

The perceived size of an object remains the same, even though the size of its image on the retina changes. This is called:

size constancy

The shape of an object remains stable, even though the shape of its retinal image changes. This is called:

shape constancy

The ability to separate figure from a background is

learned through experiences

The perceptual rule that makes important things stand out is called:

figure ground

The principle of closure states that:

we tend to fill in missing parts of a figure

We tend to follow ________ in grouping elements together to bring some order to our perceptions.

the Gestalt principles of organization

Grouping together objects that are close to each other is called:


Because of the law of _______, stimuli that are similar in size, shape, color, or form tend to be grouped together.


Because of ___________ we have the ability to see three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distances.

depth perception

Because the discrepancy in the images that reach each eye, we receive two slightly different views of the world. This phenomenon is known as ___________.

retinal disparity

The apparent convergence of parallel lines in the environment gives the feeling of distance. This is called:

linear perspective

If two objects are the same size, yet one appears to be larger, you decide that the larger item is closer. Why?

relative size

The fact that American tourists in London tend to look in the wrong direction before stepping into crosswalks is based on:

perceptual habits

According to your text, the smallest possible stimulus that can be detected between two stimuli is called:

absolute threshold

Psychologists consider marked changes in the quality and patterns of mental activity as:

altered states of consciousness

You're struggling to stay awake while driving and begin experiencing momentary shifts in brain activity which could cause you to have an accident. These shifts are called:


Confusion, disorientation, delusions and hallucinations are typical of:

sleep deprivation psychoses

After prolonged sleep deprivation, a person on the first night of sleep will:

find that most symptoms are reversed by a single nights rest

Naturally occurring daily rhythms of sleep and wake cycles in the body are called:

sleep patterns

While you're watching TV, your mind begins to drift and you become increasingly drowsy. During this transitional stage of sleep, you're disengaged from the sounds in your environment. This sleep stage is called:

stage 1 of NREM sleep

As you are falling asleep, you experience a reflex muscle contraction throughout your body called a ___________.

hynic jerk

REM is the acronym that stands for:

rapid eye movement

Gretchen is watching her infant McKenzie sleep. Gretchen notes that McKenzie's eyes dart back and forth beneath her eyelids. This suggests that McKenzie is:


According to your text, most dreams:

occur during REM

Carlos suffers from REM behavior disorder. Because of this disorder he:

may thrash violently and leap out of bed because he lacks muscle paralysis

A person suffering from insomnia has a sleep problem characterized by:

difficulty in going and staying asleep

The sleep disorder that is characterized by a person thrashing about and acting out their dreams is called:

REM sleep disorder

Mrs. Ramos notices that her prescription sedatives drastically lower her quality of sleep and she needs more pills to get to sleep. Mrs. Ramos is displaying which of the following sleep disorders?

drug dependency insomnia

Nat is a middle-aged man who stops breathing in his sleep, awakens slightly to gulp air, then goes back to sleep. This cycle is repeated several times during the night. Nat is suffering from:

sleep apnea

Irresistible, sudden attacks of sleepiness and muscle paralysis that may last anywhere from a few minutes to a half hour are symptoms of a sleep disorder called:


Research suggest that the two basic stages of sleep are:

REM and NREM sleep

People who have nightmares:

have them during REM sleep

During ________, a person suffers total panic and hallucinates frightening dream images.


Some researchers believe that SIDS or crib death may be caused by:

sleep apnea

Freud's psychodynamic dream theory was based on assumption that:

the content of dreams has symbolic meaning

In psychoanalytic theory, the disguised unconscious desires and conflicts of dreams are called:

dream symbols

In the __________ theory of dreaming, the cortex of the brain synthesizes brain activity into stories and visual images.

Activation synthesis

Drugs that increase the functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems are known as:


Casey took a drug that made her feel lethargic, apathetic and inattentive. Casey has taken a(n):


If Terry stops taking oxycotin, he develops physical ailments such as chills, cramps and diarrhea. Terry is experiencing:

physical dependence

When an individual develops a behavioral patterns of drug abuse and has an overwhelming desire to get and use the drug, we say that they have developed a:

psychological dependence

When Clarence first started drinking, all he needed to get a buzz was two beers. Now it takes him two six packs. He must have developed:


The most frequently used drug in the world is:


The most widely abused depressant is:


Downing 5 of more drinks in a short time is called:

binge drinking

The active ingredient in marijuana is


Which of the following most clearly occurs under hypnosis?

pain relief

Narcolepsy is an example of:

sleep disorder

As we move into adulthood, what happens to our patterns of sleep?

we sleep less

The senses divide the world into base perceptual features, or basic stimulus patterns, a process known as:

sensory analysis

If you press on your closed eyelids, you will experience phosphenes. This illustrates the concept of

sensory coding

People who become farsighted as they get older have the condition known as:


The greatest visual acuity is associated with the ______ and the _______.

fovea, cones

Black-and-white vision and a high degree of sensitivity to movement are characteristics of

rod vision

Opponent-process theory best explains

colored afterimages

The loudness of a sound is determined by the __________ of sound waves.


Sounds are ultimately transduced by movements of the

hair cells

We are most sensitive to _____________ tastes.


The lock and key theory appears to partly explain

olfaction gustation

Which of the following is NOT a somesthetic sense?


As time passes, nerve endings in the skin under a wristwatch send fewer signals to the brain and you become less able to feel the watch. This process is called

sensory adaptation

The fact that a mild surface pain can greatly reduce more agonizing pain is consistent with

gate control theory

Which of the following is LEAST likely to contribute to the formation of a perceptual figure?


The clearest example of a binocular depth cue is

retinal disparity

The apparent distance hypothesis provides a good explanation of the

moon illusion

Top-down perceptual processing is closely related to

perceptual expectancies

Psychics often make use of

cold reading

Eyewitness testimony is vulnerable to distortion because of

habituation, weapon focus, and a failure to pay attention

We can only know the consciousness of other minds through a(n) ________ point of view.


If you are sleep deprived as you read this question, you may well be experiencing


A person in deep sleep produces mostly

delta waves

Which of the following would normally be most incompatible with moving your arms and legs while asleep?

REM sleep

Which of the following is NOT a form of insomnia?

NREM insomnia

Nightmares differ from night terrors because they occur during the _______ sleep.


Sleep restriction and stimulus control are techniques used to treat


If REM sleep is interrupted, a person will experience REM


Wish fulfillment and dream symbols are important concepts in which explanation of dream content?


Suggestible people are most likely to be

more hypnotizable

Research has shown that hypnosis cannot produce

unusual strength

Which terms DO NOT belong together?

mindfulness meditation ------ mantra

Addictive drugs trigger

physical dependence, drug tolerance, and psychological dependence

Drug tolerance is most closely associated with

withdrawal symptoms

When rats and monkeys are given free access to cocaine, they

find it irrestible

Hyperthermia, heart arrhythmias, and severe liver damage are major risks in the use of


Polydrug abuse accounts for ______ deaths due to drug overdose.

almost all

_____________ refers to cutting a person off from his or her supply of an addictive substance


Drug abuse is partly explained by the fact that psychoactive drugs produce immediate pleasure and

delayed punishment

Freud's four dream processes ___________ dreams.