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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the Scientific Method?
procedures that researchers follow.

identify a research problem
design a study to investigate
collect and analyze data
draw a conclusion
communicate their findings
What is Structuralism?
first formal school of thought in psychology, aimed at analyzing the basic elements, or structure, of conscious mental experience.
What is Functionalism?
An early school of psychology that was concerned with how humans and animals use mental processes in adapting to their environment.
What is the difference between structuralism vs. functionalism?
structure and function
Who is the father of psychology?
Wilhelm Wundt


established a psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig.
The school of psychology that views observable, measurable behavior as appropriate subject matter for psychology and emphasizes the key role of environment as a determinant of behavior.

John B. Watson

The student has not been reinforced for getting good grades in the paste.
Ice berg theory
The unconscious is the primary focus.

Sigmund Freud

An unresolved early childhood emotional trauma is distracting the student from his academic work.
Focuses on the uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth and psychological health.

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

Studying for exams does not fit into this student's definition of a meaningful life.
Sees humans as active participants in their environment; studies mental processes such as memory, problem solving, reasoning, decision making, perception, language, and other forms of cognition.

Robins, Gosling, & Craik

The student does not use effective learning strategies such as the SQ3R method.
studies how humans have adapted to behaviors required for survival in the face of environmental pressures over the long course of evolution.

The student believes that studying is unimportant because potential mates are more interested in his physical appearance and capacity for social dominance than they are in his grades.
Looks for links between specific behaviors and equally specific biological processes that often help explain individual difference.

An inappropriate level of emotional arousal (i.e., test anxiety) is preventing this student from preforming at an optimal level.
views that social and cultural factors may be just as powerful as evolutionary and physiological factors in affecting behavior and metal processing and that these factors must be understood when interpreting the behavior of others.

The student doesn't want to be perceived as a "nerd," so he studies just enough to avoid failing.
Naturalistic observation:
method in which researchers observe and record behavior in its natural setting, without attempting to influence or control it.

Researchers must wait for for events to occur.
Laboratory observation:
method in which behavior is studied in a laboratory setting.

Laboratory behavior may not accurately reflect real-world behavior.
Case study:
method in which a single individual or a small number of persons are studied in great depth.

researchers cannot establish the cause of behavior observed in a case study, and observer bias is a potential problem.
Method in which researchers use interviews and/or questionnaires to gather information about the attitudes, believes, experiences, or behavior of a group of people.

Can be costly.
Correlation coefficient:
value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variable, +1.00 (a perfect positive correlation) to -1.00 (a perfect negative correlation).
Selection bias:
The assignment of participants to experimental or control groups in such a way that systematic differences among the groups are present at the begging of the experiment.
random assignment:
The process of slecting participants for experimental and control gropus by using a chance procedure to guarantee that each participant has an equal probability of being assigned to any of the groups; a control for selection bias.
Placebo effect:
The phenomenon that occurs in an experiment when a participant's response to a treatment is due to his or her expectations about the treatment rather than to the treatment itself.
harmless substance given to the control group in an experiment as a control for the placebo effect.
Piaget's theory:
sensorimotor (0-2) experience the world through their senses, actions, and body movements.

preoperational (2-7) able to represent objects and events mentally with words and images.

concrete operational (7-12) able to think logically in concrete situations.

formal operational (11-12) think logically in abstract situations