Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is Psychology?

Scientific study of behaviour and mental processes

Difference between Psychologist and Psychiatrist

- Different qualifications

- Psychiatrists can prescribe medication

- Psychologists use therapies to assist clients

Types of psychologists

- Clinical psychology - Clinical neuropsychology

- Community psychology - Counselling psychology

- Educational and Developmental psychology - Forensic psychology

- Health psychology - Organisational psychology

- Sport and Exercise psychology - Biological psychology

- Cognitive psychology - Personality psychology

- Social psychology

Structuralism and Functionalism

Structuralism: Structure of consiousness

Functionalism: Functions that mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt

Behavioural Perspective

- Behaviour is modified by environmental consequences like rewards and punishments

- All behaviour is learnt

Biological Perspective

- Behaviour is genetic

- Mind and body are interrelated

Congitive Perspective

- Relationship between thinking and behaviour

- Information Processing Model

Sociocultural Persepctive

- Impacts of groups and community on behaviour

- Examine how behaviour is influenced by beliefs and tradition

Parts of a Research Report

- Aim

- Operationalised hypothesis

- Participants

- Method

- Results

- Conclusion

Sampling Procedures

- Convenience Sampling

- Random Sampling

- Stratified Sampling

Extraneous and Confounding Variables

Extranseous variables may or may not impact the DV

Confounding variables have impacted the DV

Ethical Principles

- Withdrawal Rights

- Confidentiality

- Informed Consent

- Voluntary Participation

- Debriefing

- Deception

Extraneous Variables

- Individual Participant Differences

- Experimenter Bias

- Placebo Effects

- Order Effects

- Non-standardized instructions

Stages of Visual Perception System

- Reception

- Transduction

- Transmission

- Organisation

- Interpretation


- Eye recieves incoming information from environment

- Visual image is captured on retina using Rods and Cones

Rods and Cones

Rods: For low levels of light; Cannot detect fine details; Not involved in colour vision; Peripheral vision

Cones: For high levels of light; Can detect fine details; Involved in colour vision


Convert light into electrochemial energy


Electrochemial energy sent along optic nerve to visual cortex in brain


Organises information to make it more meaningful to us


- Give meaning to image using past experiences, context, and motives

- Identify where the object is placed on visual field

Perceptual Constancies

- Shape Constancy

- Size Constancy

Pictorial Depth Cues

- LinearPerspective

- Interposition

- TextureGradient

- RelativeSize

- Heightinthe Visual Field

Gestalt Principles

- Figure and Ground Organisation

- Similarity

- Proximity

- Closure

Visual Illusions

- Distortions of perception

- Brain is tricked

- Misjudge length, position, direction

Muller Iyer

- Two lines with one having feather tail ends and the other having arrow head ends

- Feather tail line is perceived longer

Biological: Move eye movement on feather tail

Behavioural: Similar to corners of buildings, inside and outside

Cognitive: Misapplication of size constancy

Sociocultural: Children raised in non-carpentered places were less likely to perceive image

Ames Room

- Person walking from one corner to the other is percieved larger

- Room is distorted and one corner is closer and the ceiling is lower

- Marking on room encourage shape constancy to perceive room as rectangular

- Maintain shape but lose size constancy

Nature vs Nurture

Nature: Born with thoughts, feelings and behaviour

Nurture: Thoughts, feelings and behaviour are acquired through life experiences



- Development of motor skills

- Thinking, memory and problem solving develops

- Recognise themselves



- Brain development continues

- Understanding language

- Logical thinking

- Sophisticated pretend play

- Friendship groups established



- Growth spurts

- More logical thinking

- Quest for independence

Early Adulthood


- Neural connections in brain most effective

- Thinking becomes rational and stable

- Adjustment to new roles like marriage, parenthood and work

Middle Age


- Reactions and muscles slow

- Stable cognitive function and peak in expertise

- Stable self-identity

Old Age


- Continued physical decline

- Reaction time and speed slows

- Self esteem is very good

Twin and Adoption Studies

- Identical twins have same genes therefore environment affects their behaviour

- Adoption means different environment that the children are brought up in

- Can see effects of parenting

Harlow Theory

- Comfort is more important than food

- Experiment shows monkey spends more time with cloth monkey rather than wire monkey

Gibson Perceptual Development

Affordance: Relationship between individual and environment

Individual is an Active Explorer

Piaget Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor 0-2

Pre-operational 2-7

Concrete operational 7-12

Formal operational 12+



- Objectpermanence

- Goaldirect behaviour



- Egocentrism

- Decentring

- Animism

- Transformation

- Centration

- Revesibility

Concrete Operational


- Conservation

- Classification

Formal Operational


- Abstract thinking

- Logical thinking

Kohlberg Moral Development

Preconventional 0-9: Infancy, Pre-school

Conventional 10-15: School age, School age

Postconventional 16+: Teens, Adulthood



Choices are based around rules

- Behaviour based on fear of punishment

- Doing good to be rewarded



Considerate of others

- Doing good for others

- Following society rules rather than friendship groups

Post Conventional


Define values based on own ethical principles

- Right is defined by one's own conscience

- Not necessarily what everyone wants