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45 Cards in this Set

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What is Psychology?

Scientific study of behaviour and mental processes

Difference between Psychologist and Psychiatrist

- Different qualifications


- Psychiatrists can prescribe medication


- Psychologists use therapies to assist clients

Types of psychologists

- Clinical psychology - Clinical neuropsychology

- Community psychology - Counselling psychology


- Educational and Developmental psychology - Forensic psychology


- Health psychology - Organisational psychology


- Sport and Exercise psychology - Biological psychology


- Cognitive psychology - Personality psychology


- Social psychology

Structuralism and Functionalism

Structuralism: Structure of consiousness


Functionalism: Functions that mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt

Behavioural Perspective

- Behaviour is modified by environmental consequences like rewards and punishments

- All behaviour is learnt

Biological Perspective

- Behaviour is genetic


- Mind and body are interrelated

Congitive Perspective

- Relationship between thinking and behaviour


- Information Processing Model

Sociocultural Persepctive

- Impacts of groups and community on behaviour


- Examine how behaviour is influenced by beliefs and tradition

Parts of a Research Report

- Aim


- Operationalised hypothesis


- Participants


- Method


- Results


- Conclusion

Sampling Procedures

- Convenience Sampling

- Random Sampling


- Stratified Sampling

Extraneous and Confounding Variables

Extranseous variables may or may not impact the DV


Confounding variables have impacted the DV

Ethical Principles

- Withdrawal Rights


- Confidentiality


- Informed Consent


- Voluntary Participation


- Debriefing


- Deception

Extraneous Variables

- Individual Participant Differences


- Experimenter Bias


- Placebo Effects


- Order Effects


- Non-standardized instructions

Stages of Visual Perception System

- Reception


- Transduction


- Transmission


- Organisation


- Interpretation

Reception

- Eye recieves incoming information from environment


- Visual image is captured on retina using Rods and Cones

Rods and Cones

Rods: For low levels of light; Cannot detect fine details; Not involved in colour vision; Peripheral vision


Cones: For high levels of light; Can detect fine details; Involved in colour vision

Transduction

Convert light into electrochemial energy

Transmission

Electrochemial energy sent along optic nerve to visual cortex in brain

Organisation

Organises information to make it more meaningful to us

Interpretation

- Give meaning to image using past experiences, context, and motives


- Identify where the object is placed on visual field

Perceptual Constancies

- Shape Constancy


- Size Constancy

Pictorial Depth Cues

- LinearPerspective


- Interposition


- TextureGradient


- RelativeSize


- Heightinthe Visual Field

Gestalt Principles

- Figure and Ground Organisation

- Similarity


- Proximity


- Closure

Visual Illusions

- Distortions of perception


- Brain is tricked


- Misjudge length, position, direction

Muller Iyer

- Two lines with one having feather tail ends and the other having arrow head ends


- Feather tail line is perceived longer


Biological: Move eye movement on feather tail


Behavioural: Similar to corners of buildings, inside and outside


Cognitive: Misapplication of size constancy


Sociocultural: Children raised in non-carpentered places were less likely to perceive image

Ames Room

- Person walking from one corner to the other is percieved larger


- Room is distorted and one corner is closer and the ceiling is lower


- Marking on room encourage shape constancy to perceive room as rectangular


- Maintain shape but lose size constancy

Nature vs Nurture

Nature: Born with thoughts, feelings and behaviour


Nurture: Thoughts, feelings and behaviour are acquired through life experiences

Infancy

0-2


- Development of motor skills


- Thinking, memory and problem solving develops


- Recognise themselves

Childhood

2-12


- Brain development continues


- Understanding language


- Logical thinking


- Sophisticated pretend play


- Friendship groups established

Adolescence

12-20


- Growth spurts


- More logical thinking


- Quest for independence

Early Adulthood

20-40


- Neural connections in brain most effective


- Thinking becomes rational and stable


- Adjustment to new roles like marriage, parenthood and work

Middle Age

40-65

- Reactions and muscles slow


- Stable cognitive function and peak in expertise


- Stable self-identity

Old Age

65+


- Continued physical decline


- Reaction time and speed slows


- Self esteem is very good

Twin and Adoption Studies

- Identical twins have same genes therefore environment affects their behaviour


- Adoption means different environment that the children are brought up in


- Can see effects of parenting

Harlow Theory

- Comfort is more important than food


- Experiment shows monkey spends more time with cloth monkey rather than wire monkey

Gibson Perceptual Development

Affordance: Relationship between individual and environment


Individual is an Active Explorer

Piaget Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor 0-2


Pre-operational 2-7


Concrete operational 7-12


Formal operational 12+

Sensorimotor

0-2


- Objectpermanence


- Goaldirect behaviour

Pre-Operational

2-7


- Egocentrism


- Decentring


- Animism


- Transformation


- Centration


- Revesibility

Concrete Operational

7-12


- Conservation


- Classification

Formal Operational

12+


- Abstract thinking


- Logical thinking

Kohlberg Moral Development

Preconventional 0-9: Infancy, Pre-school


Conventional 10-15: School age, School age


Postconventional 16+: Teens, Adulthood

Preconventional

0-9


Choices are based around rules


- Behaviour based on fear of punishment


- Doing good to be rewarded

Conventional

10-15


Considerate of others


- Doing good for others


- Following society rules rather than friendship groups

Post Conventional

16+


Define values based on own ethical principles


- Right is defined by one's own conscience


- Not necessarily what everyone wants