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51 Cards in this Set

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What is the GOLDEN RULE of experiments?

Experiments involve a minimum of 2 conditions (groups)

A minimum of _________ groups

Why are a minimum of 2 conditions used?

It allows for comparison and contrasting of groups

It allows for ________and _______ of groups

What is an independent variable?

The variable which the RESEARCHER manipulates

What is the definition of a dependent variable?

The variable which is recorded by the researcher (measure the changes)

What are the 3 types of experiments?

Lab, Natural/Quasi, Field

L__, N______/Q____, F_____

What is the definition of an extraneous variable?

The variable OTHER THAN the independent variable that can cause a change in the dependant variable

The variable that lab experiments attempt to get rid of

What is the definition of the CAUSE AND EFECT RELATIONSHIP?

One thing causes another to change .

This cannot always be established in experiments research

How can you identify the key features of an experiment?

Where, Independent variable, Dependent variable, Extraneous Variable, Procedure

W____, Iv, Dv, Ev, p________

What are the key features of a lab experiment?

1) Tightly controlled, artificial environment


2) Researcher manipulates the IV


3) The researcher measured the DV


4)It's the ONLY experiment where and attempt to minimise the EV is made


5)It uses STANDARDISED PROCEDURES

There's 5 points

What are the features of STANDARDISED PROCEDURES?

(1) Every participant has the SAME experience


(2)Allows replications of the experiment/results to be made

What was the name of Albert Bandura's experiment?

The bobo doll experiment

What happened in the Bobo doll experiment?

Children watched adults show MODELLED aggression towards the infalteable bobo doll

What did the children do once they were exposed to the doll ?

The children replicated the aggression shown by the model towards the doll.

How did Bandura believe behaviours were learnt?

Through OBSERVATION and IMITATION

o___________ and i_________

What is the theory by bandura also known as?

THE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

What are the 2 types of models?

Live models and Symbolic models

Teachers (1)


Celebrities (2)

What are the 2 types of models?

Live models and Symbolic models

Teachers (1)


Celebrities (2)

What is the process that took place in the Bobo Doll experiment also known as?

Modelling

What does the process of modelling involve?

Observing the model and then choosing wether to imitate or not

O______


I_________

What are the 2 types of models?

Live models and Symbolic models

Teachers (1)


Celebrities (2)

What was the procedure used in the bobo doll experiment?

Standardised procedures- all children were exposed to the same doll and encountered the same toys

What is the process that took place in the Bobo Doll experiment also known as?

Modelling

What does the process of modelling involve?

Observing the model and then choosing wether to imitate or not

O______


I_________

When is imitation more likely?

When we find similarities with the model

Why is imitation more likely when we find similarities with the model?

We see shared characteristics, so we assume the same outcome/reward

What happens during imitation?

Internal mental processes.


We think.

What do we think about during imitation?

Wether imitation is desired/possible



Wether the consequences are positive/ negative outcomes



We then form a decision wether to imitate

Where did the bobo doll experiment take place?

Labs in Stamford university (artificial environment)

What were the Iv and dv of the bobo doll experiment?

Iv- the level of aggression witnessed by the children



Dv- the level of aggression expressed by the children

What was the Ev's in the bobo doll experiment?

Children weren't learning aggression but we're trying to please the researcher (demand characteristics)



Boys were naturally more aggressive due to high levels of testosterone

What are the 2 types of models?

Live models and Symbolic models

Teachers (1)


Celebrities (2)

What was the procedure used in the bobo doll experiment?

Standardised procedures- all children were exposed to the same doll and encountered the same toys

What is the definition of Ecological validity ?

The extent at which findings from a research study can be generalised to real life scenarios/settings

What is the definition of high ecological validity and low ecological validity ?

High validity- Findings of the study can be generalised to real life scenarios



Low validity- findings of the research study cannot be generalised (if the experiment happens in an artificial environment)

What is the definition of reliability?

The consistency of a research study or measuring test

What is the definition of internal and external reliability ?

Internal- assesses the consistency of results across items within the test



External- extent at which a measure varies from one use to another (multiple tests/measuring different items)

What is the definition of Demand characteristics?

A subtle cue making participants aware of what the experimenter expects to find/participants are expected to behave

How do experimenters deal with demand characteristics?

mislead participants


Minimise the contact they have with participants


Use a double blind study

What is the definition of internal validity?

The extent at which a study can rule out or make unlikely alternate explanations of the results

How many variables does internal validity address?

2 (the relationship between them)

What is the definition of threats to internal validity?

Influences (except Iv) that might explain the results of a study

What is the process that took place in the Bobo Doll experiment also known as?

Modelling

What are some examples of threats to internal validity?

History


Maturation (of participants)


Attrition (loss of subjects)


Instrumentation (changed in measuring procedure)

What does the process of modelling involve?

Observing the model and then choosing wether to imitate or not

O______


I_________

When is imitation more likely?

When we find similarities with the model

Why is imitation more likely when we find similarities with the model?

We see shared characteristics, so we assume the same outcome/reward

What happens during imitation?

Internal mental processes.


We think.

What do we think about during imitation?

Wether imitation is desired/possible



Wether the consequences are positive/ negative outcomes



We then form a decision wether to imitate

Where did the bobo doll experiment take place?

Labs in Stamford university (artificial environment)

What were the Iv and dv of the bobo doll experiment?

Iv- the level of aggression witnessed by the children



Dv- the level of aggression expressed by the children

What was the Ev's in the bobo doll experiment?

Children weren't learning aggression but we're trying to please the researcher (demand characteristics)



Boys were naturally more aggressive due to high levels of testosterone