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126 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the definition of psychology?
The scientific study of the behavior of individuals and of their mental processes.
As scientists, psychologists do which of the following?
Test their theories under carefully controlled experimental circumstances.
What's the main goal of psychological research?
To predict, and in some cases, control behavior.
Who founded the 1st psychology lab in the U.S.?
G. Stanley Hall
Who was the 1st to study people's sensory processing, judgement, attention, and word association?
Wilhelm Wundt
Which of the following is desirable research?
What's the main reason results of research are published?
so other researchers can try to duplicate the work.
Why does the placebo effect work?
Because participants believe in the power of the placebo.
What's the purpose of a double-blind procedure?
To eliminate experimenter bias.
A prediction of how 2 or more variables are likely to be related is called a
Imagine a friend tells you that she has been doing better in school since she started taking vitamins. When you express disbelief, she urges you to take them. Why might the pills "work" for her, but not for you?
A belief in the power of the vitamins is necessary for any effect to occur.
In which experiment would a double-blind test be most appropriate?
A study designed to test the researcher's own controversial theory.
Why would other scientists want to replicate an experiment that's already been done?
To ensure that phenomenom under study is real and reliable.
What's the main focus of Donchin's research involving the P-300 wave?
The relation between brain and mind.
The reactions of the boys and the girls to the teacher in the candid camera episode were essentially similar. Professor Zimbardo attributes their reaction to
How an attractive teacher violates expectations.
Which cluster of topics did William James consider the main concerns of psychology?
consciousness, self, emotions
The amygdala is an area of the brain that
processes emotion.
How did Wundtian Psychologists, such as Hall, react to William James' concept of psychology?
They rejected it as unscientific.
Who wrote "Principles of Psychology", and thereby became arguably the most influential psychologist of the last century?
William James
What assumption underlies the use of reaction times to study prejudice indirectly?
Concepts that are associated more strongly in memory are verified more quickly.
Left Hemisphere or brain
Positive emotion, muscles of speech, sequence of movements, spontaneous speaking and writing, memory for words and numbers, understand speech and writing
Right Hemisphere of brain
Negative emotions, responses to simple commands, memory for shapes and music, interpret spatial relationships and visual images, recognition of faces
What section of a nerve cell receives incoming info?
In general, Neuroscientists are interested in
brain mechanisms underlying normal and abnormal behavior.
Which section of the brain coordinates body movement and maintain equilibrium?
Which brain structure is most closely involved with emotion?
Limbic System
Which method of probing the brain produces actual pictures of the brain's inner workings
Brain imaging
Research related to Acetylcholine may someday help people who have
Alzheimer's disease
When we say the relationship between the brain and behavior is reciprocal, we mean that the
brain controls behavior, but behavior can modify the brain.
Which of the following is true about how nuerons communicate with each other?
The sum of exitary and inhibitory signals to a neuron determines whether or how strongly it'll respond.
Which part of the brain controls breathing?
Brian stem
The ________ consists of 2 hemispheres connected by the corpus collosum.
After a rod was shot through Phineas Gage's skull, what psychological system was most strongly disrupted?
his emotional responses
Which of the following provides the highest temporal and spatial resolution in brain imaging?
Which of the following does not provide information about the structure of the brain?
Stimuli pass through the right eye are processed by
The left side of the brain
The process of learning how to read shows that the brain is plastic. What does this mean?
Learning how to read reorganizes the brain.
If a scientist was studying the effects of endorphins on the body, the scientist would be likely to look at a participant's
What's the relationship between the results of Saul Schanberg's research and that of Tiffany Field?
Their results show similar phenomena in different species.
What physical change did Mark Rosenzweig's team note when it studied rats raised in an enriched environment?
a thicker cortex
A scientist who uses the methodologies of Brain Science to examine animal behavior in natural habitats is a
With respect to the neurochemistry of the brain, all of these are true, except that
physostigme is responsible for information transmission in the perceptual pathways.
Which of the following is an example of a fixed-action pattern?
A flock of birds migrating in the winter.
What's the basic principle of learning?
to adopt to changing circumstances
How have psychologists traditionally studied learning
In labs with nonhuman animals as participants.
In his work, Pavlov found that a metronome could produce salivation in dogs because it signaled that
food would arrive.
What is learned in classical conditioning?
A relationship between two stimulus events.
What point is Professor Zimbardo making when he says "Relax" while firing a pistol?
Any stimulus can come to elicit any reaction.
What point does Alder and Cohen's research on taste aversion in rats make about classical conditioning?
It's powerful enough to suppress the immune system.
What is Thorndike's law of effect?
Learning is controlled by its consequences.
According to John B. Watson, any behavior, even strong emotion, could be explained by the power of
In Watson's work with Little Albert, why was Albert afraid of the Santa Claus mask?
He generalized his learned fear of the rat.
What was the point of the Skinner Box?
It provided a simple, highly controlled environment.
Skinner found that the rate at which a pigeon pecked at a target varied directly with the reinforcing?
Imagine a Behavioral Therapist is treating a person who fears going out in public places. What would the therapist be likely to focus on?
the operant antecedents
When should the conditioned stimulus be presented in order to optimally produce classical conditioning?
Just before the unconditioned stimulus.
Operant conditioning can be used to achieve all of the following, except
teaching English grammar to infants.
Which psychologist has argued that in order to understand and control behavior, one has to consider both the reinforcements acting on the selected behavior and the reinforcements acting on the alternatives.
H. Rachlin
If given a choice between an immediate small reinforcer and a delayed larger reinforcer, an untrained pigeon will select the
immediate small one.
In order to produce extinction of a classically conditioned behavior, an experimenter would present the conditioned stimulus in the absence of the
unconditioned stimulus.
In Pavlov's early work, bell is to food as
conditioned stimulus is to unconditioned stimulus.
Howard Rachlin has discovered that animals can be taught self-control through
reinforcement, operant conditioning, and instrumental conditioning.
What pattern of remembering emerged in Hermann Ebbingham's research?
A sharp initial loss was followed by a gradual decline.
The way psychologists thought about and studied memory was changed by the invention of the
What do we mean when we say that memories must be encoded?
They must be put in a form the brain can register.
About how many items can be held in short-term memory?
Imagine that you had a string of 20 digits to remember. The best way to accomplish the task, which requires increasing capacity of short term memory, is through the technique of
According to Gordon Bower, what is an important feature of good mnemonic systems?
There's a dovetailing between storage and retrieval.
According to Sigmund Freud, what's the purpose of repression?
to preserve the individual's self-esteem.
In an experiment, people spent a few minutes in an office. They were then asked to recall what they'd seen. They were most likely to recall
objects that fit into their existing schema of an office.
The paintings Franco Magnami made of an Italian town were distorted by
a child's perspective.
What was Karl Lashley's goal in teaching rats how to negotiate mazes and then removing part of their cortexes?
Determining whether memory was localized in one area of the brain.
What has Richard Thompson found in his work with rabbits conditioned to a tone before an air puff?
The memory of the response can be removed by lesioning.
Patients with Alzheimer's find it almost impossible to produce
conditioned responses
The best way to keep items in short-term memory for an indefinite length of time is to
Long-term memory is organized as a
complex network of associations.
You remember a list of unrelated words by associating them one at a time, with images of a bun, shoe, tree, door, hive, sticks, heaven's gate, line, and hen. What mnemonic technique are you using?
What did Karl Lashley conclude about the engram?
Complex memories cannot be pinpointed within the brain.
Long-term memories appear to be stored in the
How has Diana Woodruff-Pak utilized Richard Thompson's work on eyeblink conditioning?
As a precursor to early-onset of dementia.
Which neurotransmitters are disrupted by Alzheimer's?
Alzheimer's disease is associated with the loss of
memory, personality, life itselt
Michael Posner's work on brain imaging showed that patterns of Brain activity differ in predicted ways when people see words, vs. reading them aloud, vs. name the function of the objects to which they differ.
on the answer
A cognitive psychologist would be most interested in which of the following issues?
How you decide which answer is correct for this question.
What's one's prototype of a tree most likely to be similar to?
Maple Tree
According to the program, why do people assume that Montreal is farther north than Seattle
Because Canada is north of the united states in our mental maps.
A cognitive psychologist would be most interested in which of the following?
How you decide which answer is correct.
What's one way in which human problem solving appears to be quite different from the way computers solve problems?
Humans have trouble when content is unfamiliar.
What is cognitive illusion?
A biased mental strategy
How did Freud explain the fact that human beings sometimes make irrational decisions?
They're driven by primitive needs
Why would smokers be likely to underestimate the chance of developing lung cancer?
It represents a delayed consequence
Irving Janis studied how the decision to invade Cuba was made during the Kennedy administration. What advice does Janis offer to promote better decision making?
Appoint one group member to play devil's advocate.
How does cognitive dissonance make us feel?
We are so uncomfortable that we try to reduce the dissonance.
You read the following sentences: "Mary heard the ice cream truck. She remembered her bday money and ran into the house." What allowed you to understand how these sentences are related?
a schema.
According to Robert Glaser, intelligence is
a skill and can be developed.
Greg is visiting a foreign country known for its current political unrest, and has seen the news reports over the past few weeks about tourists being kidnapped. Although his chances of being killed in a car accident during his vacation, he believes the opposite. What cognitive process is behind his error?
Availability heuristic
What's the goal of psychology assessment?
To see how people vary in ability, behavior, and personality
What was Binet's aim in developing a measure of intelligence?
to ID children in need of special help
What formula did Terman create to express intelligence?
MA/CA X 100 = IQ
The attempt by neuroscientists to find biologically based measures of intelligence rests on the assumption that intelligence involves
speed of adaption.
The growing practice of "teaching for tests" creates the possibility of
lessened ecological validity (the tests don't tell us how the subj. might perform in the real world).
Standardized intelligence tests typically
overvalue verbal ability
What have we learned about intelligence over the years is that it is not a
singular process
When you give someone directions on how to find a classroom in a building, you're using your
cognitive map
________ can not be directly observed by researchers.
Tuersky and Kaheman studied biases in people. They asked if Mississippi shorter or longer than 500 mi, then asked if shorter or longer than 5000 mi. First answer was 1000 mi and second was 2000 mi. this is an example of
Anchoring Bias
What task of infancy is aided by a baby's ability to recognize his or her mothers voice?
forming social relationships
jean Piaget has studied how children think. According to Piaget, at what age does a child typically master the idea that the amount of liquid remains the same when it's poured from one container to a different container with a different shape?
8 years old
A baby is shown an orange ball a dozen times in a row. How would you predict the baby would respond?
The baby will respond with less and less interest each time.
Which of the following do newborns appear not to be already equipped with?
The ability to understand reversibility in conversation
The wildboy of Aveyron represents which important issue in develop psychology?
Nature V. Nurture
At 1 month of age, babies
prefer human faces over all other stimuli.
Which of the following is last to emerge in children?
Ability to see analogies between a real situation and a scale model of it.
Which of the following psychological characteristics appears to have a genetic component?
Tendency to be outgoing, activity level, and risk for some psychopathologies.
What sounds do very young babies prefer?
Human voices
How does the development of language competence compare from culture to culture?
It is remarkably similar.
Which of the following stages of communication consist of simple sentences that lack plurals, articles, and tenses, but tend to have the constituent words in the order appropriate to the child's native language?
Telegraphic speech
What's the correct progression in the development of communication?
Crying, Cooing, Babbling, 2 word phrases
According to research by Zella Lurin and Jeffrey Rubin, the difference in the language parents use to describe their newborns is primarily reflection of
the parent's expectations coloring their perceptions.
Which difference between the ways in which boys and girls play seems linked to sex hormones?
Boys engage in rough tumble and play
The term androgynous would be apply to
a male rock star who wears heavy make up, long hair, and feminim clothing
Because of the way we socialize our children, men tend to experience more freedom to ______, whereas women experience more freedom to ________.
Discover, Express themselves.
How has research on lifespan development changed our idea of human nature?
We view people as continuing to develop throughout life.
According to Erikson, the young adult faces a conflict between
isolation and intimacy
Assuming that a person remains healthy, what happens to the ability to derive sexual pleasure as one ages?
it does not change
In which of the following areas do the elderly typically have an advantage over college students?
The elderly were less lonely