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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is psychology?

The science of behaviour and mental processes

Science in psychology refers to:

the psychologists attempts to understand people by thinking critically about careful, controlled observations

Behaviour in psychology refers to:

all of a person’s overt actions that can be observed by others

Mental processes in psychology refer to:

to the private thoughts emotions, feelings and motives that other people cannot directly observe.
Understanding a person requires attention to:
the individuals biology, psychological experience and cultural context.

The four goals of psychology are to:





The goal in psychology, to describe, is talking about how:

Information gathered in scientific studies helps psychologists describe behavior and mental processes accurately.

The goal in psychology, to predict, is talking about how:

In some cases, research gives psychologists the tools to predict future behavior reasonably well.

The goal in psychology, to understand, is talking about how:

We understand behavior and mental processes when we can explain them. As there is always more to learn what we currently know is always tentative, i.e. our explanations are not truths. They are theories that might be improved, or even rejected, by future studies

The goal in psychology, to influence, is talking about how:

Psychologists hope to go beyond description, understanding and prediction to influence behavior in beneficial ways
All psychological processes occur through:
the interaction of cells in the nervous system
All human action occurs in the context of:
cultural beliefs and values that render it meaningful
What two things establish both the possibilities and constraintswithin which people think, feel and act?
Biology and culture

What is the 0-1 year stage of Erickson's stages?

Trust vs Mistrust: gaining ability to trust others around and a feeling of confidence and security

What is the 1-3 years stage of Erickson's stages?

Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt: child gains more independence and can make choices like on food and clothes

What is the 3-6 years stage of Erickson's stages?

Initiative vs Guilt: More assertive behavior. Begin to plan activities and initiate activities with other. Develop sense of initiative and feel secure in ability to lead others.

What is the 6yrs - puberty stage of Erickson's stages?

Industry vs Inferiority: Developing a sense of pride in accomplishments. Teachers play an increased role.

What is the Teenage yrs stage of Erickson's stages?

Identity vs Role Confusion: Transition from childhood to adulthood. Becoming more independent, begin to look at future, career, relationships, families, housing etc. Begin to form their own identity based upon outcome of explorations.

What is the 20's-30's years stage of Erickson's stages?

Intimacy vs isolation: Share more intimately with others. Explore relationships leading toward longer term commitments with someone other than family. Can lead to comfortable relationships and a sense of commitment safety and care within a relationship.

What is the 40's-50's years stage of Erickson's stages?

Generativity vs stagnation: Careers are established. Families begun. Give back to community

What is the 60's onwards stage of Erickson's stages?

Ego Integrity vs Despair: Becoming senior citizens, tend to slow down our productivity and explore life as retired person. contemplate accomplishments and question whether life was successful.

How many stages are in Ericksons stages?


If you are 9 weeks pregnant or less how would you receive an abortion in NZ?

Through an abortion pill or a minor surgical procedure. (usually awake)

If you are between 9 weeks and 14 weeks pregnant how would you receive and abortion in NZ?

Minor surgical procedure (usually awake)

If you are between 14 and 19 weeks pregnant how would you receive an abortion in NZ?

Surgical abortion under general anesthesia

If you are 14 weeks pregnant or more and have a fetal abnormality, what happens?

You can receive an early induction or labour

If you are between 20-24 weeks pregnant, How would u go about getting an abortion

You might be able to have a surgical abortion in australia but a strict criteria applies.

If your over 20 weeks pregnant, under what circumstance would you be allowed an abortion?

To save your life or prevent SERIOUS mental or physical injury to yourself.

If someone is less than 20 weeks pregnant under what circumstances would they be able to receive an abortion

-If the pregnancy would result in serious danger to mental or physical health of the girl,

-or if pregnancy occurred between parent and child, grandparent and grandchild, half or full blood sibling

-If the pregnancy would result in a seriously physically or mentally handicapped person.

The first stage of birthing involves: and ends:

1.) Early labour

2.) Active labour

Ends when cervix is fully dialated

The three stages of labour are:

1.) Contractions

2.) Pushing

3.) Delivering placenta

Define Piaget's term conservation:

Wit's one of Piaget's developmental accomplishments, in which the child understands that changing the form of a substance or object does not change its amount, overall volume, or mass.

Define Piaget's term deductive reasoning:

it's a decision-making process where choices are made based upon the results of previous choices and a critical observation of the results.

Define Piaget's term Ego centrism:

Refers to the child's inability to see a situation from another person 's point od view, According to Piaget, the egocentric child assumes that other people see, hear, and feel exactly the same as the child does.

Define Piaget's term Object Permanence:

Object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be observed (seen, heard, touched, smelled or sensed in any way).

Define Piaget's term Reversibility:

The ability to recognise that numbers and objects can be changed and returned to their original condition.

Define Piaget's term Serial Ordering:

Ability to categorise things (sort objects into shapes, colour, size)

What are the four distinguishing characteristics of attachment?

- Secure base (child able to rely on CG to explore world)

- Separation distress (child upset if separated from attachment figure)

- Safe Haven (child will return to attachment figure when distressed/scared)

- Proximity maintenance (child attempts to remain close and looks at where positioned in relation to figure)

What does secure attachment look like? and what percent of infants are securely attached?

-child will be distressed when mother leaves

-child will avoid a stranger when mother is not around/ be friendly when mother is

-positive and happy when mother returns

-will use mother as safe base to explore

-70% of infants are securely attached.

What does ambivalent attachment look like? and what percentage of infants show ambivalent attachment?

-infant shows intense distress when mother leaves

-infants avoids and shows fear of stranger

-child approaches mother when reunited but may avoid her and even push away

-cries more and explores less than other two types.

-15% of infants show this.

What does avoidant attachment look like? and what percentage of infants show avoidant attachment?

-no sign of distress when mother leaves

-okay with stranger and plays normally when stranger is present

-little interest when mother returns

-mother and stranger able to comfort child equally well

-15% of infants show this attachment

What is Piagets 0-2 years stage?

Sensori motor stage: co ordinates senses with motor skills and shows object permanence.

What is Piaget's 2-7 years stage?

Pre -Operational stage: Egocentric, cannot practice conservation (water poured into large cup is not larger) and does not have logical thinking that operates within consistent rules.

What is Piaget's 7- 11 years stage?

Concrete operational stage: Mature understanding of cause and effect relationships, thinking in concrete not abstract way, Developing an understanding of conservation, reversibility and serial ordering

What is Piaget's 11+ stage?

Formal operational: child begins thinking abstract, uses deductive reasoning, comparison and classification.

Authoritative parenting is where a parent is:

Demanding, controlling % accepting, responsive

Indulgent parenting is where they are:

Non demanding, non controlling & accepting, responsive

Neglectful parenting is where they are:

Non demanding, non controlling & rejecting, non responsive

Authoritarian parenting is where they are:

Demanding controlling & rejecting, non responsive

What are the three types of temperament?

1. Easy and adaptable

2. Difficult, harder to settle

3. Slow to warm but then calm

What are schemas according to Piaget?

Categories in the mind

What is assimilation according to Piaget?

a child using what they already know to deal with new information

What is accommodation according to Piaget?

a child comes up with a new scheme to understand the information

What Vagotsky believe?

That culture played the biggest part in the development of children

What was Vagotsky interested in?

The way children adapted to their environment

Vagotsky emphasised:

The tools that humans use to enhance their mental capabilities, the most significant of which is language

The zone of proximal development was developed by:


What is the zone of proximal development?

- Describes the different between what a child can do with assistance or without assistance

What does scaffolding describe in the zone of proximal development?

describes the way that the person teaching the skill provides a supportive environment to learn in.

Erik Erikson was interested in:

how children socialize and how this effects their sense of self

Erik Erickson believed that:

change occurred throughout life not just a few years

Well-child developmental stage of 0-6 months entails:

-Develop more control of their head

-Push with their feet, and learn to roll

-Begin to explore objects and things around them

Well-child developmental stage of 6 months to 1 year consists of:

-Become more mobile

-Push with their feet, learn to roll, sit, move around the floor, pull to stand and walk around the furniture

-Develop stronger head control

-Begin to explore objects and things around them

Wellchild developmental stage of 1-2 years consists of:

-Become more independent and curious about things

-Want to do things for themselvesPlay with a variety of toys and objects

-Be ready to learn to use the toilet (from around 18 months to 4 years)

Well child developmental stage of 2-5 years consists of:

-Enjoy being active, and develop physical abilities like running, jumping, climbing and throwing

-Develop skills like using scissors, drawing and building

What is the id?

the part of the mind in which innate instinctive impulses and primary processes are manifest. Urges, opperates by the pleasure principle

What is the Ego?

the part of the mind that mediates between the conscious and the unconscious and is responsible for reality testing and a sense of personal identity. Rational thinking, The id and the super ego are at war as two different drives, and our ego is the part of us that actually makes a choice after experiencing both urges, weighs things up.

What is the super ego?

the part of a person's mind that acts as a self-critical conscience, reflecting social standards learned from parents and teachers. Moral fiber, the part of you that desires to know and do what is right