Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/129

Click to flip

129 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Psychology

The science that deals with the behavior and thinking of organisms.

Wilhelm Wundt

Started the first psychology lab in Germany, the founder of modern psychology and founded introspection and structuralism.

Introspection

The process of looking into yourself and seeing what's there.

Structuralism

It stresses the basic units of experience and the combination of when they occur. It is also considered a study of human consciousness.

G. Stanley

He was a student of Wundt, started America's first research psychology lab at John Hopkins Medical School, launched America's first psychology journal and started the American Psychology Association (APA).

Edward Titchener

He was a student of Wundt and shaped the idea of structuralism further with the idea of sensation and perception, in vision, in hearing and touch.

Williams James

Believed consciousness is a continuous flow, developed functionalism and he was called the Father of Psychology.

Functionalism

The study of how the mind works rather than on the mental process.

Gestalt Psychologists

Founded by Wertheimer,Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Kuffa. They studied how people perceive and experience objects' whole patterns. It was based on the belief that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

Photo Phenomenon

The illusion of movement by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession

Sir Francis Galton

He wanted to understand how heredity influences a person's abilities, character, and behavior. He raised the issue on whether behavior is determined by heredity or the environment.

John B. Watson

Hw founded the school of behaviorism based in the idea that observable measurable behavior must be studied. He was proposing that the psychologist abandon the study of consciousness all together

Behaviorism

A systematic approach to the understanding of human and animal behavior.

B. F. Skinner

He continued Watson's behavioral approach and was interested in changing behavior through conditioning. He used reinforcement in his experiments.

Sigmund Freud

He founded the school of psychoanalysis based on the belief the behavior was governed by hidden motives and unconscious desires.

Psychoanalysis

This attempted to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders.

Carl Rogers

He believed behavior was governed by individuals' self-concept or self and wanted people to reach their potential for personal growth.

Ivan Pavlov

He conducted the famous salivating dog experiment which psychologist can use to account for behavior as a product of prior experience.

Applied Psychology

The branch of psychology concerned with everyday practical problems that was first needed in ww1 for the mental testing of military recruits .

Clinical Psychology

The branch concerned with the treatment of psychological problems and disorders that was also used for screening military recruits and treating soldiers for PTSD in ww2

Developmental Psychology

It studies the physical, emotional,cognitive, and social changes that occur through life (starting with the prenatal stage through old age)

Clinical/ Counseling Psychology

Helps people with personal problems. The most popular field.

Industrial Psychology

Addresses a problem of training personnel improving working conditions, reducing working accidents, and changing staff attitudes.

Physiological Psychology

The behavior caused by physical condition in the body. The focus is on the brain cz nervous system, endocrine system and the body's biochemistry.

Educational Psychology

It deals with topics related to teaching children and young adults on topics like intelligence, memory, problem solving and motivation.

Forensic Psychologist

They work in legal courts and correctional system. They assist police by developing personality profiles of criminals in helping to understand problems like abuse.

Psychologist

They must have a PHD degree in psychology and specialize in areas like clinical, social, adolescence, etc.

Psychiatrist

A medical doctor that has completed 3 years of residency training in psychiatry. They can perform surgery, prescribe drugs and the specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of abnormal behavior

Naturalistic Observation

Observing and recording the behavior of organisms; human or animal, in their natural environment without interfering

Directed Observation

Observing behavior under controlled conditions like a lab

Case Study

An extensive study of a person or group that can be used as a powerful research tool. Most combine long term observations with diaries, tests, and interviews.

Survey

Information that is obtained from a fixed set of questions that consists of interviews, questionnaires or both.

Longitudinal Method

When the same group is studied at regular intervals over a period of years to see if behavior or feelings have changed.

Cross Sectional Method

It looks at different age groups at the same time in order to understand changes that occur during a lifespan

Correlation

The relationship between two or more variables or sets of data

Subject

A organism; human or animal, that participates in an experiment

Hypothesis

An educated guess about how the experiment will turn out

Independent Variable

The condition or behavior that can change in amount or quality

Dependent Variable

It may not change when the independent variable is changed

Experimental Group

The independent variable or treatment is given to that group

Control Group

The group that is given no treatment but necessary for all experiments

Theory

A general principle to explain what has been known. It organizes known facts and predicts new facts

Personality

An individual's characteristic pattern of thought, behavior, and emotion

Interview

A conversation with a purpose that can be flexible or used to draw out sensitive information

Halo Effect

A situation in which a person who has one positive characteristic is assumed to have other positive effects.

Reverse Halo Effect

A person with one negative characteristic that is assumed to have other negative effects

Objective Test (Personality Inventory)

A list of questions about an individual's behavior and feelings that assesses personality traits

16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)

It consists of 374 questions labeling 16 traits that's R. B. Cantrell identified

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)

The most widely used test consisting of 567 questions on which a person says true,false, or cannot say. It has no right or wrong answers and reveals habits, fears, delusions, sexual attitudes and symptoms of psychological disorders.

California Psychological Inventory (CPI)

It consists of 480 questions that deal with self-acceptance, self-control, responsibility,tolerance, and desire to achieve and get along. Most often used in school

Myer-Briggs Test

Focuses on how a person takes in information, makes decisions, and approaches day to day tasks. It characterizes personality on 4 scales:


•extroversion vs. introversion


•intuition vs. sensing


•feeling vs. thinking


•judging vs. perceiving

Protective Test

The test is open-ended exams that invite people to tell stories about pictures, diagrams and objects. Projecting their inner feelings and conflicts by responding to stimuli.

Rorschach Inkblot Test

The best known projective test that was developed by Herman Rorschach. It consists of 10 Inkblots that arouse emotional responses

Thematic Apperception (TAT)

The projective test that was developed by Henry Murray and was she second most widely use. It consisted of 20 cards with one or more human figures in suggestive situations that the person would have to tell a story about

Aptitude

The projective test measures one's special skills like carpentry, medicine, sewing, etc.

Achievement Test

The test measures specific material remembered from the classroom


For ex: the act

Vocational Interest

The test helps to predict what occupational area an individual would like

Strong Campbell Interest Inventory

The most widely used vocational test based on people's success in certain fields

Intellectual Development

The development of an individual's mental abilities

Jean Piaget

He wanted to find out the reasons children gave for their responses. He developed the Piaget Theory consisting of 4 age groups

Conservation

The quantities remain the same although their shape may change

Object Permanence

After 8 months of age you develop awareness that objects exist even when they are perceived at not being there

Moral Development

The knowledge of what's right and what's wrong

Piaget's 4 stages

Karen Horney

She emphasized the relationship between young children and their parents in shaping personality. She believed that basic anxiety arises when kids feel alone, isolated and helplessness. She also believed if a child is raised in an atmosphere of love and security they will avoid Freud's psychosexual child conflict

Erick Erickson

He developed a theory based on eight stages called psychosocial development, based on life periods in which an individuals' goal is to satisfy desires associated with social needs

Identity vs. Role Confusion

It is nicknamed the "who am I?" Stage as a person tried to discover who they are based on peer groups and role models


Lawrence Kohlberg's 6 Stage Theory

He developed a 6 stage theory on Moral Development by presenting children of different ages with different moral dilemmas

Conscious

An awareness of something

Unconscious

It is ideas, thoughts and feelings, which we are normally not aware of.

Free Association

A technique Freud used to study the unconscious where a person says whatever comes to their mind first

Id

The unconscious' primitive urges that are mainly sexual and aggressive that are present at birth. They tell us what we want and desire and is controlled by the pleasure principle

Ego

Consciously controls all the thinking and reasoning and settles disputes between the ID AND SD. Is controlled by the reality principle

Superego

Consciously controls moral thinking and is not present at birth.

Libido

Your sex drive or sexual energy

Carl Jung

He broke away from Freud to form analytical psychology. He believed that people tried to develop their potential, as well as handle instinctual urges. He also creates 2 types of unconscious

Archetype

They reflected a common experience of humanity regarding mothers, father's, nature, war, etc .

Personal Unconscious

It contains in an individual's regressed thoughts, forgotten experiences and developed ideas

Collective Unconscious

It was Jung's most important idea that contains memories that are inherited and are common to all species

Extrovert

An outgoing, active person who directs their energy to other people and things.

Introvert

An observed withdrawn person who is preoccupied with their inner thoughts and ideas

Alfred Adler

He differed from Freud and he stressed the importance of the conscious. He believed the driving force in people's lives is a desire to overcome their feelings of inferiority and that all humans are motivated by social urges and each person is a social being with a unique personality. He called his theories individual psychology

Abraham Maslow

He explained his theories in terms of motivation and used a hierarchy to move upwards to fulfill needs

Stage 1 sleep

The lightest level of sleep where your pulse slows and muscles relax, your breathing becomes uneven and brain waves irregular. Lasts up to 10 mins

Stage 4 sleep

The deepest level of sleep where it is difficult to awaken the sleeper, you develop large regular Delta waves.

Insomnia

The failure to get enough sleep at night in order to feel well rested

Sleep apnea

when a person has trouble breathing during their sleep

Narcolepsy

Characterized by a permanent and overwhelming feeling of sleepiness and fatigue. They have usual sleep and dream patterns and have sleep attacks during the day

Nightmare

An unpleasant dream that occurs during REM sleep

Night Terror

Sleep disruptions that occur during stage 4 sleep. It involves screaming, panic or confusion

Sleepwalking

When a person is partially, but not completely awake during the night

Inuit people of North America

Believed that dreams contained hidden meanings

Francis Crick

Believed dreams are our way for our brain to remove unneeded memories

Sensation

It occurs any time a stimulus activates one if your receptors, simply the process of receiving information from the environment

Absolute Threshold

The weakest amount of stimuli required to produce a sensation

Difference Threshold

The smallest change in a physical stimulus that can be detected half if the time

Perception

The organization of sensory information into meaningful experiences

Gestalt Psychologist

They believed that the experience it comes from organizing bits and pieces of information into meaningful whole is more than the sum of its parts

Closure

The tendency to close or complete figures

Continuity

When you seek smooth continuous contours rather than discrete disruptive shapes

Proximity

The tendency to group together those elements that are close to each other

Similarity

The grouping of elements that are similar in appearance

Simplicity

When you perceive patterns in the simplest most organized manner

Figure ground perception

The ability to discriminate from its figure and background

Subliminal perception

The ability to notice stimuli that affects only the unconscious mind

Name calling

Using negative labels to discredit someone or something

Glittering Generality

Broad statements that appeal to the emotions

Card stacking

Slanting the facts

Plain folks

Using folksy language

Transfer

Connecting a product with someone or something that is admired

Bandwagon

The act of appealing to people's desires to go along with the crowd.

Extrasensory perception

The ability to gain information by some other means other that the ordinary senses

Clairvoyance

Perceiving objects or information without sensory input

Telepathy

Reading someone's else's mind or transferring one's thought

Psychokinesis

Moving objects through purely mental effort

Precognition

The ability to foretell events

Intelligence

The ability to learn and adapt

L. L. Thustone

He classified intelligence into 7 primary factors

Crystalized Intelligence

Made up of reasoning, verbal and numerical skills stressed in school

Fluid intelligence

Made up of spatial, visual imagery and rote memory

Alfred binet

Developed the first individual test which consisted of 30 tasks to be performed by children and the tasks were arranged in groups from age 3 to adult hood. He assume intelligence increased with age and said a slow learner is one's who's mental age is less than their chronological age

Mental age

An estimate of a person's levels of functioning based on a test

Chronological age

The number of years, months, and days since a person's birth

Lewis Terman

He published the Stanford Binet intelligence test, which consisted of 90 items arranged by years and he introduced the term intelligence quotient

Culture Fair Test

It tests the intelligence of people outside of the culture at which the test was given.

Reliability

Refers to its test consistency and it's ability to yield the same result under similar circumstances

Validity

It tests ability to measure what it is intended to measure

Content validity

It is is the test has an adequate sample of the knowledge it is suppose to measure

Criterion related validity

When the test is measure by a comparison of the test score and independent measures